Ecology 1 - Biodiversity Questions How many species are...

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1 Biodiversity Questions • How many species are there? • How are species distributed in space? • What are the explanations for these basic distribution patterns? • How have humans affected biodiversity? Biodiversity Questions How many species are there? – What are you going to count? – How are you going to count them? Average estimate, ignoring bacteria: 13,620,000 species (range: 10-30 million) 1. 1.4 - 1.5 million spp. described/ in museums
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2 Average estimate: 13,620,000 species (range: 10-30+ million) 1. 1.4 - 1.5 million spp. described/ in museums 2. guesstimates: a. species/ effort curve Time spent sampling # species 2b. Calculation of # spp of arthropods based on weevils on Luehea seemannii in Panama • 1,100 spp weevils • 160 spp. estimated restricted to that tree spp • Beetles ~ 40% known arthropods – 160 spp / .4 400 canopy arthropods • canopy arthropods ~ 2 x forest floor arthropods – 400 canopy + 200 floor = 600 arthropods • ~50,000 spp. tropical trees – 600 arthropod spp x 50,000 trees = 30 million tropical arthropod species » Erwin & Scott, 1980, 1982, 1983 DNA barcoding: An alternative? • Use mtDNA: cytochrome c oxidase I (CO1) • Sequence ~648 bp • Species level differences: – Moths: 6.5% – Birds: 7.9% • Intra-specific differences: – Moths: 0.25% – Birds: 0.27%
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3 Astraptes BYTTNER
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Ecology 1 - Biodiversity Questions How many species are...

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