psy 352.docx - Lecture 1 Chapter 1 What is personality A...

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Lecture 1Chapter 1What is personality?: A person’s characteristic pattern of thinking, acting and feeling Individual differences Traits: characteristics that make people different from each other e.g. shy, friendlyPersonality implies consistency across situations Traits = average tendencies Traits = internal characteristics Traits = enduring over time But is personality really a function of consistent traits? Traits or situations?situationism:the view that personality is a function of a situation (not internal traits)Walter Mischel (1960’s) > personality too minimal to focus on The idea of multiple selves, situationally elicited Hartshorne and may: grave grade school kids opportunities for undetected deceit (lying in class, cheating on a test) - dishonesty in one domain = relatively poor predictor of dishonesty in anotherPerson situation debate: stable traits or changing situations > behavior? Interactionism:the view that personality and situation drive behavior together Personality traits: average tendencies (tend to shape situation)Situations vary in strength (tend to share personality) Personality psychology: historically & today Historically > grand theories Focus on broad, human nature analyses of personality e.g. Freudian psychoanalysis Contemporary personality psychology - focus on the individual/group difference e.g. extraverts versus introverts, men vs. women in many psychological domains e.g. cognition, emotional, social, development 6 theoretical approaches to personality1.Dispositional:traits Do you have a steady, unchanging personality? 2.Biological: inherited predispositions, physiological processAre genes. brain chemistry/ evolution3.Intrapsychic: processes within the mind (unconscious) Is personality shaped by forces outside of consciousness 4.Cognitive experiential: thoughts and subjective experiences How is personality shaped by thoughts, feelings, beliefs, goals, etc? 5.Social and cultural:society, culture, and gender Do we learn to have certain personalities from our social contexts? 6.Adjustment:coping, adapting, and adjusting to lifeHow is personality connected to stress and health? Could a personality trait itself be disordered? Lecture 208-30-19Chapter 2Personality assessment, measurement, and research design Part 1: four types of personality How could we learn about someone's personality? 1.Self-report data (S- data)Ask the person about themselves
Open-ended questions, true/false, adjective checklists, etc. Likert scale: a range of numbers represents answers ex. How creative are you ? 1 2 3 4 etc. Experience sampling: report experiences repeatedly over time (detects patterns) e.g. social media Strengths: access to information that others don't have, easy to measureWeaknesses:accurate self-knowledge, honesty?

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