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BB lecture 9-9-09 organic cpds

BB lecture 9-9-09 organic cpds - Chapter 4(pp.58-66 Carbon...

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Chapter 4 (pp.58-66) Carbon compounds Learning objectives: Understand the basis for carbon’s versatility Be able to recognize, name and draw major functional groups Be able to recognize, name and draw three types of isomers (structural, geometric, and enantiomer (aka optical). Know how to predict solubility characteristics of organic compounds based on molecular structure/functional group/polarity Know how cpd type is indicated by the endings of cpd names Chapter 5 (pp.68-76) There are four major categories of macromolecules; for each be able to describe the - elemental composition , - molecular structure/subunits , and - function(s) of each type………..starting with CARBOHYDRATES Terms to know include….organic chemistry, functional group, isomer (geometric, enantiomer, structural), monomer, polymer, condensation rx., hydrolysis rx., monosaccharide (simple sugar), di- /poly-saccharide….
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Fig. 4-4 Hydrogen (valence = 1) Oxygen (valence = 2) Nitrogen (valence = 3) Carbon (valence = 4) H O N C Review: valence shell …the outermost energy shell valence electrons… electrons in the outermost shell valence… the number of bonds an element can make (from Latin: valentia …meaning strength or capacity) MEMORIZE THE VALENCES OF THESE FOUR ELEMENTS
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Because… A carbon atom has 2 electrons in the first shell and 4 in the second shell. Its valence shell is usually completed by sharing electrons with other atoms in four covalent bonds.
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