Final Study Guide Good one

Final Study Guide Good one - 1. The 1947 Consititution of...

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1. The 1947 Consititution of Japan Created by United States during Japanese occupation following World War II Been the founding legal document of Japan since 1947 o Rigid document o No subsequent amendment has been made since 1947 Committee members were not experts at writing constitutions (some were doctors, lawyers, etc) First draft was in English Emperor is a state symbol, does not really have political power ”de jure head of state” o Can conduct ceremonial and diplomatic affairs Three Branches o Diet (Parliament)- Legislative power o Cabinent- Administrative power o Court System- Judicial power Universal suffrage o Voting age reduced from 25 to 20 o Women could now vote Article 9 ended Japan as a possible military power o Japan could not maintain and army or lead a war Provides parliamentary structure of government o Replace Japan’s old imperial system with liberal democracy Guaruntees certain fundamental rights Many Japanese felt document was too westernized MacArthur and his staff played huge role in composition of the document MacArthur Draft o Conformed to the British model of Parliamentary government t o Greatly influenced by ideas of certain Japanese liberals After 1952, conservatives and nationalists attempted to revise Constitution to make it more Japanese o No real progress because Difficulty to amend 2/3 majorities of both houses In National Diet before presented as referendum to the people opposition parties occupied 1/3 of the Diet seats supporters of constitutional status quo 2. US- Japan Security Treaty and the fight over its Revisionism Japanese Occupation started in 1945 Formally ended the American occupation in Japan Allowed the US to use military bases in Japan for defense in the Far East and to protect Japan Allowed the US to intervene in Japanese internal disturbances Japan’s army and navy disbanded
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o “self defense” reform later enacted 1957- Prime Minister Kishi started revising the treaty Bilateral talks on revising the Mutual Security Assistance Pact of 1952 began in 1959 Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security was signed between United States and Japan on January 19, 1960 Strengthened Japan’s ties to the west in the Cold war era Had general provisions on the further development of international cooperation and on improved future economic cooperation Kishi tried to pass at midnight without opposition’s knowledge, lead to later troubles o When sumbmitted to the Japanese Diet on February 5, it became the subject of bitter debate over the Japan-United States relationship and the occasion for violence in an all out effort by the leftist opposition to prevent is passage o Approved by House of Representatives of Japan on may 20 o Japan socialist Party debuties boycotted the lower house session and tried to prevent the LDP debuties from entering the Chamber o Forcibly removed by the police o
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Final Study Guide Good one - 1. The 1947 Consititution of...

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