Chapter10 - Chapter 10 Substance-Related and Impulse-Control Disorders Perspectives on Substance-Related Disorders The Nature of Substance-Related

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Chapter 10 Substance-Related and Impulse-Control Disorders
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Perspectives on Substance-Related Disorders The Nature of Substance-Related Disorders Use and abuse of psychoactive substances Wide-ranging physiological, psychological, and behavioral effects Associated with impairment and significant costs
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Perspectives on Substance-Related Disorders (continued) Some Important Terms and Distinctions Substance use vs. substance intoxication Substance abuse vs. substance dependence Tolerance vs. withdrawal
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Five Main Categories of Substances Depressants Behavioral sedation (e.g., alcohol, sedative, anxiolytic drugs) Stimulants Increase alertness and elevate mood (e.g., cocaine, nicotine)
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Five Main Categories of Substances (continued) Opiates Produce analgesia and euphoria (e.g., heroin, morphine, codeine) Hallucinogens Alter sensory perception (e.g., marijuana, LSD) Other drugs of abuse Include inhalants, anabolic steroids, medications
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The Depressants: Alcohol Use Disorders Psychological and Physiological Effects of Alcohol Central Nervous system depressant Influences several neurotransmitter systems Specific target is GABA
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The Depressants: Alcohol Use Disorders (continued) Effects of Chronic Alcohol Use Alcohol intoxication and withdrawal Associated brain conditions – Dementia and Wernicke’s disease Fetal alcohol syndrome DSM-IV-TR Criteria for Disordered Alcohol Use
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Alcohol: Some Facts and Statistics In the United States Most adults consider themselves light drinkers or abstainers Over 50% of the U.S. (> 12 years age) report current use Alcohol use is highest among Caucasian Americans Males use and abuse alcohol more so than females
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Alcohol: Some Facts and Statistics (continued) Violence is associated with alcohol Alcohol alone does not cause aggression Statistics on Abuse and Dependence 15 million Americans are alcohol dependent 20% with alcohol problems experience spontaneous recovery
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Sedative, Hypnotic, or Anxiolytic Substance use Disorders: An Overview The Nature of Drugs in This Class Sedatives – Calming (e.g., barbiturates) Hypnotic – Sleep inducing Anxiolytic – Anxiety reducing (e.g., benzodiazepines)
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Sedative, Hypnotic, or Anxiolytic Substance use Disorders: An Overview (continued) Effects Are Similar to Large Doses of Alcohol Combining such drugs with alcohol is synergistic All Exert Their Influence via the GABA Neurotransmitter System DSM-IV-TR Criteria for this Class of Disorders Main criteria and distinguishing features
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Stimulants: An Overview Nature of Stimulants Most widely consumed drug in the United States Such drugs increase alertness and increase energy Examples include amphetamines, cocaine, nicotine, and caffeine
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Stimulants: Amphetamine Use Disorders Effects of Amphetamines Produce elation, vigor, reduce fatigue Such effects are followed by extreme
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This note was uploaded on 11/09/2009 for the course PSY 3315 taught by Professor - during the Spring '08 term at Texas State.

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Chapter10 - Chapter 10 Substance-Related and Impulse-Control Disorders Perspectives on Substance-Related Disorders The Nature of Substance-Related

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