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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 2 Notes Theory and Research • Interdisciplinary o Methods and questions vary • Theories o Assumptions, principals or methods to better understand phenomenon Psychological Theories • Most influential • Freud (1856 – 1939) • Contemporary Culture Two Controversial Concepts • Personality formation • Psychosexual subject Personality Formation (Two Divisions) • Instinctual Motivations o Libido – Life and sexual motivation o Thanatos – Death & aggression Levels of Operation • Unconcious (id) o Inaccessible, seeks satisfaction • Preconscious (ego) o Information within • Conscious (superego) o Information in awareness Psychoanalysis • Disorder o Ego Psychosexual Development • Within first six years of life • Stages of development o Corresponding erogenous zones where libidinal energy is directed o Fixation occurs when libidinal energy is caught in that stage’s zone Psychosexual Stages of Development 1) Oral: (18 months) – Mouth 2) Anal: (3 years) – Anus 3) Phallic: (6 years) – Genitals (Penis/Clitoris) a. Boys: Oedipus complex, castration anxiety b. Girls: Electra complex, penis envy 4) Latency (puberty): None 5) Genital (death): adult sexual behaviors a. No fixations: heterosexual adult Behavioral Theory • Ignore internal states • B.F. Skinner • Operant conditioning o Reinforcement o Punishment • Behavior Modification o Tool to change unwanted behavior o Aversion therapy Social Learning Theory • Albert Bandura • Internal and external events affect behavior o Thoughts, feelings and belief o Identification and imitation of same-sex parent in development of our gender identity o Peer pressure influence on our sexuality Cognitive Theory • Behavior o Perceive and conceive environment • Brain o Largest sex organ Humanistic Theory • Self actualization o Fulfillment of aptitudes and talents • Unconditional positive regard (love) o Facilitates self-actualization o Childrearing Biological Theory • Goal Oriented o Reproduce o Pass genes • Controlled by physiology, genetics • Sexual problems due to physiological causes; o Remove by medications or surgery Evolutionary Theory • Biological and Social o Pass genes o Physical Attraction Sociological and Anthropological Theory • Cross-cultural variation • Structural Forces o Family, religion, economy, medicine, law, media, environment, biology • Agency o Activism Feminist Theory – Patriarchal Critique Queer Theory – Heterosexism as an influence Early Sexuality Research • Plato, Aristotle, Hippocrates • 19th century: focus on deviance • 20th century o Hygiene movement o Public health issue o Freud, Ellis, Bloch Recent Sexuality Research • 1980s – 1990s o HIV/AIDS prompted research o “problem-driven” research • Problems o Political: Moral agenda Fear of encouraging sex o Social: Popular media Sensationalizes and distorts information Katharine Davis Alfred Kinsey • 1st large scale survey of adult sexual histories • Most influential • Atheoretical: no existing data • Interviewed 18,000 to obtain sexual histories Sexuality Research Moves to US • Institute for Sex Research (1947) • Sexual Behavior in the Human Male (1948) • Sexual Behavior in the Human Female (1953) • • Many taboo activities widely practiced Controversial, lost funding Masters & Johnson (1954) • Brought sexuality into laboratory • Anatomy and Physiology of intercourse in the laboratory o Electrocardiograph o Electromyograph o Penile strain gauges o Photoplethysmographs Human Sexual Response (1966) • 4 Stage Model • Women have multiple orgasms • Sexuality persists through age Human Sexual Inadequacy (1970) • Vaginal orgasms from clitoral stimulation Homosexuality in Perspective (1979) • Critiqued • Proof that gay conversion with behavior modification was fabricated Dr. Evelyn Hooker (1950s) • Challenged that homosexuality was an illness • Revealed that professionals could not differentiate gay and straight males Bell & Weinberg: Homosexualities (1978) • Majority of homosexual men and women do not conform to stereotypes • Aren’t sexual predators • Homosexuals and heterosexuals are similar in intimate relationships Methods and Consideration • Case study – thorough examination of 1 or few participants • Validity – Accuracy of measurement • Reliability – Consistency of measurement • Generalizability – Ability of sample to be applicable to the population Problems and Issues in Sex Research • Ethics – informed consent, confidentiality • Generalizability – Volunteer bias, sampling bias (convenience – college students) • Reliability – changes over time; memory Cross-Cultural • Human Sexual Behaviors (1971) o One of the largest cultural studies Globilization • Research Shift: Local to Global • Global Sex Survey o US less frequent amount of sex per week and finds sex less pleasurable than countries such as Japan. ...
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- Summer '08