Chapter 2 Notes - Chapter 2 Notes Theory and Research •...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Chapter 2 Notes Theory and Research • Interdisciplinary o Methods and questions vary • Theories o Assumptions, principals or methods to better understand phenomenon Psychological Theories • Most influential • Freud (1856 – 1939) • Contemporary Culture Two Controversial Concepts • Personality formation • Psychosexual subject Personality Formation (Two Divisions) • Instinctual Motivations o Libido – Life and sexual motivation o Thanatos – Death & aggression Levels of Operation • Unconcious (id) o Inaccessible, seeks satisfaction • Preconscious (ego) o Information within • Conscious (superego) o Information in awareness Psychoanalysis • Disorder o Ego Psychosexual Development • Within first six years of life • Stages of development o Corresponding erogenous zones where libidinal energy is directed o Fixation occurs when libidinal energy is caught in that stage’s zone Psychosexual Stages of Development 1) Oral: (18 months) – Mouth 2) Anal: (3 years) – Anus 3) Phallic: (6 years) – Genitals (Penis/Clitoris) a. Boys: Oedipus complex, castration anxiety b. Girls: Electra complex, penis envy 4) Latency (puberty): None 5) Genital (death): adult sexual behaviors a. No fixations: heterosexual adult Behavioral Theory • Ignore internal states • B.F. Skinner • Operant conditioning o Reinforcement o Punishment • Behavior Modification o Tool to change unwanted behavior o Aversion therapy Social Learning Theory • Albert Bandura • Internal and external events affect behavior o Thoughts, feelings and belief o Identification and imitation of same-sex parent in development of our gender identity o Peer pressure influence on our sexuality Cognitive Theory • Behavior o Perceive and conceive environment • Brain o Largest sex organ Humanistic Theory • Self actualization o Fulfillment of aptitudes and talents • Unconditional positive regard (love) o Facilitates self-actualization o Childrearing Biological Theory • Goal Oriented o Reproduce o Pass genes • Controlled by physiology, genetics • Sexual problems due to physiological causes; o Remove by medications or surgery Evolutionary Theory • Biological and Social o Pass genes o Physical Attraction Sociological and Anthropological Theory • Cross-cultural variation • Structural Forces o Family, religion, economy, medicine, law, media, environment, biology • Agency o Activism Feminist Theory – Patriarchal Critique Queer Theory – Heterosexism as an influence Early Sexuality Research • Plato, Aristotle, Hippocrates • 19th century: focus on deviance • 20th century o Hygiene movement o Public health issue o Freud, Ellis, Bloch Recent Sexuality Research • 1980s – 1990s o HIV/AIDS prompted research o “problem-driven” research • Problems o Political: Moral agenda Fear of encouraging sex o Social: Popular media Sensationalizes and distorts information Katharine Davis Alfred Kinsey • 1st large scale survey of adult sexual histories • Most influential • Atheoretical: no existing data • Interviewed 18,000 to obtain sexual histories Sexuality Research Moves to US • Institute for Sex Research (1947) • Sexual Behavior in the Human Male (1948) • Sexual Behavior in the Human Female (1953) • • Many taboo activities widely practiced Controversial, lost funding Masters & Johnson (1954) • Brought sexuality into laboratory • Anatomy and Physiology of intercourse in the laboratory o Electrocardiograph o Electromyograph o Penile strain gauges o Photoplethysmographs Human Sexual Response (1966) • 4 Stage Model • Women have multiple orgasms • Sexuality persists through age Human Sexual Inadequacy (1970) • Vaginal orgasms from clitoral stimulation Homosexuality in Perspective (1979) • Critiqued • Proof that gay conversion with behavior modification was fabricated Dr. Evelyn Hooker (1950s) • Challenged that homosexuality was an illness • Revealed that professionals could not differentiate gay and straight males Bell & Weinberg: Homosexualities (1978) • Majority of homosexual men and women do not conform to stereotypes • Aren’t sexual predators • Homosexuals and heterosexuals are similar in intimate relationships Methods and Consideration • Case study – thorough examination of 1 or few participants • Validity – Accuracy of measurement • Reliability – Consistency of measurement • Generalizability – Ability of sample to be applicable to the population Problems and Issues in Sex Research • Ethics – informed consent, confidentiality • Generalizability – Volunteer bias, sampling bias (convenience – college students) • Reliability – changes over time; memory Cross-Cultural • Human Sexual Behaviors (1971) o One of the largest cultural studies Globilization • Research Shift: Local to Global • Global Sex Survey o US less frequent amount of sex per week and finds sex less pleasurable than countries such as Japan. ...
View Full Document

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

Ask a homework question - tutors are online