ExamFormulaSheet - PHYSICS 101-102 Conceptual Physics Exam...

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PHYSICS 101-102 - Conceptual Physics Exam Formula Sheet Units (SI): Length: m = meter Time: s = second Mass: kg = kilogram; atomic mass unit u = 1.661 . 10 -27 kg = m ( 12 C)/12 Velocity: m/s Acceleration: m/s 2 Momentum: kg m/s Force: N = Newton = kg m/s 2 Energy: J = Joule = Nm = kg m 2 /s 2 ; eV = electron-Volt = 1.602 . 10 -19 J Power: W = Watt = J/s Charge: C = Coulomb Currents: A = Ampere = C/s Electric Field: N/C = V/m Electric Potential: V = Volt = J/C Electric Resistance: Ω = Ohm = V/A Magnetic Field: T = Tesla = Vs/m 2 =10,000 Gauss Amount: mol (1 mol = N A molecules = A gram, where A is atomic mass) Pressure: Pa = Pascal = N/m 2 ; 100,000 Pa 1 atmosphere Temperature: K = Kelvin (C = Celsius, F = Fahrenheit); 32 o F = 0 o C = 273.15 K; 212 o F = 100 o C = 373.15K Heat: J or 1 calorie = 4.187 J; 1 food calorie = 1000 calories = 4187 J Frequency: Hz = 1/s Prefixes: kilo = k = 10 3 = 1000 = Thousand Mega = M = 10 6 = 1,000,000 = Million Giga = G = 10 9 = 1,000,000,000 = Billion Tera = T = 10 12 = Trillion, Peta = P = 10 15 = Quadrillion centi = c = 10 -2 = 0.01 = 1-hundreth milli = m = 10 -3 = 0.001 = 1-thousandth micro = μ = 10 -6 = 0.000,001 = 1-millionth nano = n = 10 -9 , pico = p = 10 -12 , femto = f = 10 -15
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PHYSICS 101-102 - Conceptual Physics Useful Constants: Gravitational constant: G = 6.67 . 10 -11 Nm 2 /kg 2 Gravitational acceleration at surface of Earth: g = 9.81 m/s 2 Mass of Sun: 1.99 . 10 30 kg Distance from Earth to Sun: 1.50 . 10 11 m Mass of Moon: 7.35 . 10 22 kg Distance from Earth to Moon: 3.84 . 10 8 m Mass of Earth: 5.97 . 10 24 kg Radius of Earth: 6.38 . 10 6 m Earth’s magnetic field: about 0.5 Gauss = 0.0005 T (5 . 10 -5 T) Elementary charge: e = 1.602 . 10 -19 C Permittivity constant: ε o = 8.854 . 10 -12 F/m Permeability constant: μ o = 4 π . 10 -7 H/m k (electrostatic force constant) = 1/4 π ε o = 8.99 . 10 9 Nm 2 /C 2 Speed of Light: c = 2.998 . 10 8 m/s = 1/ ε o μ o Avogadro's number: N A = 6.022 . 10 23 molecules/mol = number of 12 C atoms in 12 g of carbon Universal Gas Constant: R = 8.32 J/mol/K Typical speed of sound: 330 m/s – 340 m/s in air Frequency of “middle A” note: 440 Hz Electron mass: m e = 9.109 . 10 -31 kg; E = mc 2 = 511,000 eV Proton mass: m p = 1.673 . 10 -27 kg; E = mc 2 = 938,272,000 eV Neutron mass: m n = 1.675 . 10 -27 kg; E = mc 2 = 939,565,000 eV Planck’s constant: h = 6.63 . 10 -34 Js = 6.63 . 10 -25 kg m/s x nm = 4.17 . 10 -15 eV / Hz => 1/ h = 1.51 . 10 -33 Hz/J = 2.4 . 10 14 Hz/eV; 2 eV corresponds to λ = 620 nm and f = 4.84 . 10 14 Hz (yellow light)
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PHYSICS 101-102 - Conceptual Physics Average velocity for time interval Δ t = t 1 …t 2 (motion in 1 dimension) v av = change in position during the time " t elapsed time " t = x ( t 2 ) # x ( t 1 ) t 2 # t 1 = " x " t Instantaneous velocity at time t = average velocity for a very short time interval around t ; dx/dt Relative velocity addition ! v ( x relative to B ) = ! v ( x relative to A ) + ! v ( A relative to B ) Acceleration for time interval Δ t = t 1 …t 2 a = change in velocity during time " t elapsed time interval " t = " v " t Motion in 1 dimension with constant acceleration: v x ( t ) = v x 0 + a x 0 t v av,x (0 … t 1 ) = 1 / 2 [ v x 0 + v x ( t 1 )] x ( t ) = x 0 + v x 0 t + 1 / 2 a x 0 t 2 Forces – some Examples Weight: ! F Weight = - mg (in negative vertical direction, up = +); g = 9.8 m/s 2 near Earth’s surface Force exerted by spring (Hooke's Law): F el = - kx (opposite to the direction of the displacement x ; with k = spring constant, x = displacement from re- laxed state of spring) Normal force F n : Equal and opposite to sum of perpendicular (to a surface) components of all other forces (makes net perpendicular force zero) Static Friction f stat
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