Unformatted text preview: Chapter 17
Speaking to Persuade Persuasion promotes understanding; Persuasion understanding breeds acceptance; acceptance leads to action.
--Garvin & Roberto (1995) --Garvin Basics of Persuasion Persuasion Persuasion = “The process of influence.” The process of creating, reinforcing, or changing people’s attitudes, beliefs and values. Changing the mind, the heart or the actions. Rhetoric = "the faculty of discovering in any particular case all of the available means of persuasion.“ Ethical Stances Quinitilian: “The good man speaking well.”
– Is the speech appropriate for the occasion? – Does the speaker walk the talk? Martin Buber: “IThou” Relationship
– Does the speech appeal to an individual level? – Conversational, dialogic John Rawls: “Veil of Ignorance”
– Is evaluation solely on basis of argument? – Suspend preconceptions of a speaker idea or audience (race, gender, political affiliation, etc) The Challenge of Persuasive Speaking TAILORING YOUR MESSAGE – Target audience: the portion of the whole audience that the speaker wants to persuade. – Mental dialogue with the audience: the mental giveandtake between a speaker and listener during a persuasive speech. Degrees of Persuasion
Strongly Opposed Moderately Opposed Slightly Opposed Neutral Slightly In Favor Moderately Strongly In Favor In Favor Persuasion involves any movement by a listener from left to right Goal is influence . . . ATTITUDES BELIEFS VALUES Levels of Influence Motivations to Persuade Cognitive Dissonance
(Leon Festinger, 1957) A state of conflicting thoughts/emotions that produces tension that person works to reduce When faced with uncomfortable thought…
– Listeners can discredit the source – Listeners may reject, deny, or reinterpret the message causing the inconsistency – Listeners may seek new information – Listeners may stop listening – Listeners may change… (alter their state) Establish the Urgency (Why Now?) Crises encourage innovation (resolve a problem) •Competitors •Regulators •Major Failures •Time pressure (first mover) •Media Market demand Interdependencies (without X we cannot do Y) Time pressure Consequences of not acting Hierarchy of Needs
(Abraham Maslow, 1960) QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. www.lifeworktransitions.com/images/maslow.gif http://sfhelp.org/02/needlevels.htm Additional Motivation Positive Motivation Negative Motivation Guilt Appeals QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Preparing Your Case Speech Information Time: 4:30 – 5:30 minutes Topic has to be controversial or debatable Remember: persuasion is difficult Stay away from offending topics (i.e. abortion, religious issues, etc.) Topics due by Thursday in email to me (Oct. 30th) Read directions on P. 473 in text – 1 pt. deduction for every 15 seconds over/under Framing Persuasion
Proposition: a statement for audiences to agree (Thesis, Central Claim, Conclusion) Proposition of Fact Proposition of Value Proposition of Policy Proposition of Fact A proposition about the truth or falsity of an assertion. – Similar to informative speech, but differs in situation and purpose. – Courtroom trials Iraq supported Al Qaida terrorist activities in 2001. Intense language makes you appear more confident. The media is sexually discriminating George Bush’s immigrant policy will not solve our problem. Florida is the most desirable place for the undesirable. Deodorant is a contributing factor to breast cancer. Proposition of Value A proposition about the worth, rightness, morality, and so forth of an idea or action. Compare values to a standard: Define Standard Judge subject against standard Quick Time™ and a TIFF (Unc ompres sed) decompres s or are needed to s ee this pic ture. The war in Iraq is just and right. Generic drugs are better than name brand drugs. Democracy is a better form of government than Communism. Capital punishment benefits the country. Spanking is harmful punishment for children. Proposition of Policy QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. A proposition advocating a specific actionchanging of policy, procedure or behavior (whether a specific course of action [policy] should or should not be taken).
The federal government should remove the troops in Iraq immediately. Our college should abolish academic tenure. All handguns should be abolished. Polygamy should be decriminalized. Air conditioning in cars should be outlawed for the protection of our environment Goals for Policy Propositions Passive Agreement (future act) The federal government should enact a policy that would withdraw all troops from Iraq by 2010. Immediate Action (act now) The federal government should remove the troops in Iraq immediately. Fact? Value? Policy? To persuade my audience that the federal government has a moral duty to uphold the right of marriage between a man and a woman. To persuade my audience that the federal government should enact legislation to ban gay marriage. To persuade my audience that children who grow up in gay families are more likely to be gay. Arrangement Fact Value – Topical/Key Reasons (Primacy/Recency) – Spatial – Familiarity/Acceptance (aka CriteriaSatisfaction) – Justification (Topical/ Key Reasons) – – – ProblemSolution/ ProblemCauseSolution Monroe’s Motivated Sequence Refutation Policy Monroe’s Motivated Sequence Attention Need Satisfaction Visualization Action MMS Example
Think of a BreathMint Commercial Attention: Imagine a romantic encounter with a stranger Need: But your breath is foul. What to do?! Satisfaction: Fear not! With SUPERMINTY mints, your breath will be fresh for HOURS. Visualization: Now imagine a world where everyone has fresh, minty breath…think of all the strangers out there! ;) Action: BUY SUPERMINTY mints today! MMS (Con’t)
I. Intro: Gain Attention II. Body/Main Points: Need college students deal with psychological problems that often are ignored because of the negative stereotypes associates with mental health care. When left untreated these problems can stand in the way of accomplishment and a sense of contentment Satisfaction explain how counseling alleviates mental health problems Visualization describe the benefits of being mentally healthy then describe the increased risks associated with ignoring psychological strain III. Conclusion: Call to Action Encourage people to visit the counseling center provide a lot of detail on how to do it counseling Additional Methods of Persuasion “Extra” 1. Comparative Advantages Main Point #1 Problem Main Point #2 Alternatives Main Point #3 Best Plan Examine the concern, talk about/contrast the possible solutions and discuss why your plan is the best. Example (body of speech only)
A. B. C. We need to invest in some system for television reception if we want access to the information and entertainment that it provides. There are several options available today. – Using rooftop antenna is one option – Subscribing to cable television is another option – Installing a satellite system is third option. We need to choose satellite television. – Satellite is the best because of the following reasons. – Satellite is can be easily installed. 2. Refutation The attack and defense of a challenged statement of claim (David Zarefsky) To answer the argument of another (Brydon & Scott) To attempt to weaken the proofs by the opposition (Sproule) To raise doubt about a competing position by revealing inconsistencies and weaknesses (Osborne and Osborne) Steps of a Refutation Clearly frame the message that you will refute. Explain the significance of the message that you will refute. Introduce and then develop your refutation. Explain how your message damages the opposition. Step One Clearly frame the message that you will refute Have a topic sentence that covers the entire main point. State the argument to be refuted/attacked. You must know your opponent’s intent (state their objection clearly, concisely and honestly). Step Two Explain the significance of the claim you’ll refute You must make clear why it is important to counter the argument, reduce the reservation, or address the position in opposition. Step Three Introduce and then develop your refutation Lay out the refutation plan—tell how you’re going to do it. Construct your argument—use a method of refutation (see notes) Make a claim and support it with credible evidence (facts, figures, examples and testimony) Step Four Explain how your claim damages the opposition Explain the impact your argument has on your opponent’s argument. Tell the audience directly. Leave nothing to the audience’s discretion—be explicit!!! Methods of Refutation
1. Ask questions/raise objects. 2. Note contradictions or inconsistencies with opponent’s argument or evidence. a. Apply the tests of evidence. b. Test your opponent’s reasoning. 3. Turn the tables. 4. Concede, but engage in transcendence. Ask Questions & Raise Objections
My opponent’s argument sounds powerful and profound, but really isn’t. Example: The NRA wants to make sure you can have a gun in your household to protect your family. But look at the numbers of OUR children dying from gunrelated accidents! Are guns really protecting our families, or are they killing them? Note Contradictions or Inconsistencies You are working to show that the argument is not true or very limited.
– Apply the tests of Evidence – Test opponent’s reasoning Bias? Outdated? Overreliance on a single source? Irrelevant? Inexpert? Inconsistent? Unreliable? Apply the tests of Evidence FALLACIOUS? When does an analogy fall apart? When does the argument not apply? Turn the Tables REDEFINE the situation. Your opponent is X is good; Y is bad. You say, well, no—actually Y is good and X is bad. Example: Malcolm X argued that white is bad and black is good. Concede & Transcend
Say that the opposition’s argument is true (concede), but engage in transcendence by appealing to a higher value (family, time, life, morals, etc). Example: An opponent to the death penalty concedes that she too would want to kill someone who murdered someone she loved, but she wants society to be better than that. Example (body of speech only) A. Some people claim that school uniforms reduce violence. 1. This argument is based on beliefs regarding social comparison theory, child development, and socioeconomic status (explain) 2. Although these beliefs make some sense, several studies have concluded that schools that switched to uniforms actually experienced increased violence among students (cite studies) 3. When examining the evidence regarding school uniforms and violence, it is obvious that school uniforms are not the catalyst for reducing violence, and may in fact be creating a situation that may actually increase it. B. Some people claim that school uniforms will improve academic achievement and standardized test scores. 1. This argument is based on beliefs regarding social comparisons, child development and emotional intelligence (explain) 2. Again, these preconceptions tend to make sense, until one considers that research is showing no significant improvement in test scores by students attending schools with mandatory school uniform policies. (cite studies) 3. Although there may be good reasons for mandating school uniforms, improving academic achievement and test scores is not among them. Review: Chapter 16 Definition of persuasion, define rhetoric Distinguish between 3 Ethical Stances Understand the importance of a target audience Understand how (levels of influence) attitudes, beliefs, values and behaviors differ and the difficulty associated with changes to each Define and identify motivational strategies: Cognitive dissonance, Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, Positive & Negative Motivation Define and understand Demagogue Difference between questions of fact, questions of value, and questions of policy Define & match organizational patterns for persuasive speeches (items of logical proof, spatial, familiarity/acceptance, justification, problemcause solution, elimination outline, Monroe’s motivated sequence, criteria satisfaction, refutation) Maslow’s Hierarchy Self Actualize Esteem Social Safety Physiological Marketing Strategies Based on Maslow’s Needs Theory
Products Vitamins, herbal supplements, medicines, low-fat foods, exercise equipment, fitness clubs Quaker Oatmeal--”Oh, what those oats can do!” Avlimal—”Reclaim your sensuality.” Marketing Kaiser-Permanente--”More people turn to us for approache good health.” s Products Cargill—”Nourishing ideas, nourishing people.” Advil--”Advanced medicine for pain.” Marketing Strategies Based on Maslow’s Needs Theory
Car accessories, burglar alarm systems, Products retirement investments, insurance, smoke and carbon monoxide detectors Allstate Insurance--”You’re in good hands with Allstate.” Marketing Ford Motor Company--”Only your mother is more approache obsessed with your safety.” s Products Lysol Basin Tub & Tile Cleaner--”This is no place for germs.” Merrill Lynch--”A tradition of trust.” Marketing Strategies Based on Maslow’s Needs Theory
Products Beauty aids, entertainment, clothing Carnival Cruise Lines--”The most popular cruise line in the world.” Marketing Pepsi--”Join the Pepsi Generation.” approache Dr. Pepper—”I’m a Pepper, he’s a Pepper,… s Products wouldn’t you…” Lady Foot Locker--”One store. Every woman.” Marketing Strategies Based on Maslow’s Needs Theory
Products Clothing, cars, jewelry, liquors, hobbies, beauty spa services Jeep--”There’s only one.” Movado Museum Watch--”The making of a Marketing legendary classic.” approache Bombay Sapphire Dry Gin--”Pour something s Products priceless.” BMW--”The ultimate driving machine.” Marketing Strategies Based on Maslow’s Needs Theory
Products Education, cultural events, sports, hobbies Nike--”Just do it.” Marketing Outward Bound Schools--”The adventure lasts a approache lifetime.” s Products Army—”An Army of One!” Lexus—”The passionate pursuit of perfection.” Courtroom Links http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JjCA3I-V9WA&feature=related ...
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- Fall '06
- school uniforms