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Unformatted text preview: Leadership & Decision Making in Groups Making Lost on the Moon from NASA Your spaceship has just crashed on the moon. You were scheduled to rendezvous with a mother ship 200 miles away on the lighted surface of the moon, but the rough landing has ruined your ship and destroyed all the equipment on board except for the 15 items listed below. Your crew's survival depends on reaching the mother ship, so you must choose the most critical items available for the 200-mile trip. Your task is to rank the 15 items in terms of their importance for survival. Place a number 1 by the most important item, number 2 by the second most important, and so on, through number 15, the least important. _____ Box of matches _____ Food concentrate _____ Fifty feet of nylon rope _____ Parachute silk _____ Solar-powered portable heating unit _____ Two .45 caliber pistols _____ One case of pet milk _____ Two 100 lb tanks of oxygen _____ Stellar map (of the moon’s constellations) _____ Self-inflating life raft _____ Magnetic compass _____ 5 gallons of water _____ Signal flares _____ First-aid kit injection needles _____ Solar-powered FM radio-transmitter Answers Answers Box of matches – 15 No oxygen to sustain flame, virtually worthless Efficient means of supplying energy requirements Useful in scaling cliffs, tying injured together Protection from sun's rays Not needed unless on dark side Food concentrate – 4 Fifty feet of nylon rope – 6 Parachute silk – 8 Solar-powered portable heating unit – 13 Answers Answers Two .45 caliber pistols – 11 Possible means of self-propulsion Bulkier duplication of food concentrate Most pressing survival need Primary means of navigation CO2 bottle in military raft may be used for propulsion One case of pet milk – 12 Two 100 lb tanks of oxygen – 1 Stellar map of moon’s constellations– 3 Self-inflating life raft – 9 Answers Answers Magnetic compass – 14 Magnetic field on moon is not polarized; worthless for navigation Replacement for tremendous liquid loss on lighted side Distress signal when mother ship is sighted Needles for vitamins, medicines, etc., will fit special aperture in NASA space suits For communication with mother ship; but FM requires line-of-sight transmission and short ranges 5 gallons of water – 2 Signal flares – 10 First-aid kit injection needles – 7 Solar-powered FM radio-transmitter – 5 What is Leadership? What
A Process Not a single action Dynamic and interactive give and take give authoritarian vs democratic Involves influence three elements: leader, follower, and situation Purposeful Purposeful strategic communication is key to purposeful strategic influence - leaders try to get things done leaders What do Leaders Look Like? Like? Tim Berners-Lee David Warren Pitched the idea of the WWW
Ken Kutaragi Convinced the aviation industry to use “black boxes” Successfully advocated the Sony PlayStation
Carli Fiorina Hyman Rickover Despite opposition, sold the idea of merging HP and Created the nuclear Navy against deep opposition William Campbell & Mohammed Aziz Convinced Merck to manufacture and donate Successfull y pitched Title IX
Mectizan Edith Green Claire Patterson Successively convinced that world that leaded gasoline was dangerous Jim Delligatti Art Fry Persuade d McDonald’ s to introduce Subversiv ely sold Post-It Notes to 3M “Sold” the idea of Sesame StreetJoan Ganz Cooney Candy Lightner Joseph Lister Rachel Carson Successfully changed laws on alcohol and driving Convinced the world about the place of antisepsis Advocate d for reduced pesticides (DDT)
Robin Warren & Barry Marshall Spent 20 years convincing the world that bacteria caused ulcers Jean Monnet Father of the European Community So, what do leaders look like? like? Trait Approach to Leadership Trait There are certain characteristics that people There possess that make them more or less likely to be effective leaders be However, there are no definitive traits that However, guarantee leadership effectiveness guarantee Leadership Styles Leadership
Impoverished Management Authority-Compliance Management Country Club Management Team Management Middle-of-the-road Management Middle-of-the-road Impoverished Management Low concern for people Low concern for production Low Do bare minimum to get by Do Withdrawn and distant from their subordinates Authority-Compliance Management
Low concern for people Low High concern for production Believe that accomplishing the Believe mission is more important than the well being of their followers the Use subordinates as vehicles for Use task accomplishment Country Club Management High in their concern for others Low in their concern for production More concerned with interpersonal harmony More than with task accomplishment than Avoid confrontation Uncontroversial, favors harmony Uncontroversial, Team Management High in concern for others High in concern for production Task and social requirements can be mutually Task supportive A job well done will facilitate team job development development Middle-of-the-road Management Moderate amount of concern for others Moderate amount of concern for production Compromisers or balancers Seek acceptable levels of task and social Make decisions based on balancing efforts Make Balance subordinate welfare with task Balance accomplishment Transactional VS Transformational Leadership Leadership
Transactional Uses a system of rewards and punishment to exert Uses influence over followers influence Transformational Gains influence from followers through a process that Gains appeals to followers values and beliefs appeals Inspire followers with a vision of the change event Charismatic leader, convince followers that a change Charismatic is necessary Situational Leadership Theory
Matching appropriate leader behaviors based Matching on the developmental level of followers on Developmental level based on 2 variables: 1. Competence Competence 2. Commitment 2. Situational Leadership Theory
Once leader has determined the followers’ Once development level the leader selects the best leadership style leadership Directive leader More direct role in task communication One-way communication Supportive leader Facilitate teamwork Two-way communication Active listening, collaborative problem solving Ethical Leadership Think through challenging situations before Think they occur they Listen to your gut Listen Make a rule and know you can turn around Make and break it and Sometimes have to treat people different Practical Suggestions for Effective Leadership Lead in different ways Figure out who you are Face to face communication can work miracles Safeguard reputation Fix follower’s personal problems immediately Fix Listen more, talk less Expect great things Develop other leaders Keep hope alive The little things are not little The Review Items What is leadership What What is the trait approach to leadership? Know the different leadership styles Understand the principles of situated Understand leadership leadership Know how ethical leadership works Know Identify some suggestions for effective Identify leadership ...
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- Fall '06