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Microbiology Exam 3 Study Guide

Microbiology Exam 3 Study Guide - Medical Microbiology Exam...

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Bio 225 Exam 3 Objectives Chapter 14 Principles of Disease & Epidemiology Pathology, Infection and Disease Pathology - scientific study of disease, concerned with etiology, pathogenesis , & effects of disease Etiology – cause Pathogenesis – development Infection - invasion & growth of pathogens Disease - abnormal state in which part or all of body is not properly adjusted or is incapable of performing normal functions, loss of homeostasis Normal Flora Concept of normal flora - Microorganisms establishing permanent colonies inside or on body without producing disease Microbial antagonism - normal microbiota preventing pathogens from causing infection Symbiosis - living together 3 kinds of symbiotic relationships: Commensalism (one organism benefits & other is unaffected) Mutualism (both organisms benefit) Parasitism (one organism benefits & one is harmed) Opportunistic Pathogens - do not cause disease under normal conditions but cause disease under special conditions Etiology of Infectious Disease Koch’s postulates - criteria for establishing specific microbes causing specific diseases Same pathogen must be present in every case of the disease. The pathogen must be isolated in pure culture. The pathogen isolated from pure culture must cause the same disease in a healthy, susceptible laboratory animal. The pathogen must be reisolated from the inoculated
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laboratory animal. Exceptions to Koch’s postulates: Kochs postulates are modified to establish etiologies of diseases caused by viruses & some bacteria which cannot be grown on artificial media. Some diseases, such as tetanus, have unequivocal signs & symptoms. Some diseases, such as pneumonia and nephritis, may be caused by a variety of microbes. Some pathogens, such as S. pyogenes , cause several different diseases. Certain pathogens, such as HIV, cause disease in humans only. Classification of Infectious Disease Diagnosis - symptoms (subjective changes in body functions) & signs (measurable changes) Incidence - Number of people contracting disease in given time period Prevalence – Number of total cases at a particular time regardless of when they developed Syndrome - specific group of symptoms or signs always accompaning a specific disease Communicable disease - transmitted directly or indirectly from one host to another Non-communicable disease - caused by microorganisms normally growing outside body & not transmitted from one host to another. Contagious disease - one easily spread from one person to another. Sporadic - occurs occasionally (typhoid fever in the U.S.) Endemic - constantly present in a population (common cold) Epidemic - many cases in a given area in short time period
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(influenza) Pandemic - world wide epidemic (influenza occasionally, AIDS may be considered pandemic) Acute - develops rapidly, lasts a short time (influenza) Chronic - develops slowly, reactions are less severe, likely to be continual or recurrent for long periods (infectious mononucleosis, TB, hepatitis B) Subacute - intermediate between acute & chronic (sclerosing panencephalitis)
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