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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 7: Language and Thought Chapter Review 7.1: Units of Thought Thought Thought is an extension of perception and memory Mental representations are formed, recalled, and manipulated using memory Thinking can involve words, images, or can involve mental models Mental images are visual representations and mental models are representations that describe, explain or predict the way things work. Concepts and Categories Objects are classified on the basis of their properties Categories are natural groupings based on common properties A concept is a mental representation of a category Process of Categorization Categorization involves recognizing an object as a member of a category We categorize objects by comparison with defining features Some objects can be "clearly" defined (salt), others are "fuzzy" (honest) We also rate objects based on similarity/dissimilarity to prototypes Prototypes are a model based on abstraction of the characteristics of the category A prototype can be based on a combination of visual shape and verbal characteristics Categories are organized in hierarchies: Subordinate to basic level to superordinate A GLOBAL VISTA: Culture and Categorization Culture shapes categories and the way people group things together. Chapter 7: Language and Thought Chapter Review 7.2: Reasoning, Problem Solving, and Decision Making Reasoning Reasoning refers to the process by which people generate and evaluate arguments Inductive reasoning: We reason from specific observations to a general proposition Deductive reasoning: We draw a conclusion from a set of assumptions and we argue that the conclusion is true if the premises are true Analogical reasoning: Understanding a novel situation in terms of a familiar one A Syllogism is a set of formal statements in deductive reasoning. A Syllogism is a set of formal statements in deductive reasoning....
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This note was uploaded on 11/10/2009 for the course PSYCH 100 taught by Professor Matchock,robert during the Spring '07 term at Penn State.
- Spring '07