PSYCH 100 Wiley Notes Chapter 5

PSYCH 100 Wiley Notes Chapter 5 - Learning Learning is...

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Learning Learning is essentially about prediction – predicting the future from past experience. These predictions then result in a change in how the organism responds to the environment. Learning Theories share three assumptions: experience shapes behavior, learning is adaptive, experimentation can uncover laws of learning Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning: Environmental stimuli lead to a learned response through pairing of an unconditioned stimulus with a conditioned stimulus. Unconditioned stimulus: Produces a response (unconditioned reflex) automatically when an organism is exposed to it. Unconditioned response: The response of the organism to the unconditioned stimuli (UCS). It does not have to be learned. Conditioned stimuli: A stimulus that, when associated with the UCS (learned), produces the UCR. Conditioned response: A response that is the same as the UCR, but now occurs as a result of the CS (has been learned). Special Classically Conditioned Responses Taste Aversions: Learned aversions to a taste associated with an unpleasant feeling (typically nausea). There exists an evolutionary significance for learning due to nausea. Conditioned emotional responses: Formerly neutral stimuli produce emotional responses when associated with emotional stimuli (or, emotional UCSs). Classic examples include Watson & Raynor's illustration with 'Little Albert.' Phobias have been proposed as clear illustration of classical conditioning in humans. Further, knowledge of irrationality illustrates that classically conditioned responses are beyond ability to exercise reason. Conditioned immune responses: With increased exposure to stimuli that weaken immune response, these stimuli serve to regulate later immune response (even without exposure to material that weakened immune system initially; the UCSs). Elements of Classical Conditioning Stimulus generalization: Stimuli that resemble the CS produce a similar CR. As the stimulus becomes less similar to the original CS, the CR either reduces, or eventually does not occur at all. Stimulus discrimination: For some discrete situations, classical conditioning is restricted to that situation only. Pavlov demonstrated this by conditioning salivation in dogs to a 60MHz bell tone, and extinguished salivation for 50 and 70MHz tones. Extinction: When exposure to the CS occurs repeatedly without the UCS, eventually the CS fails to produce the CR (weakens). However, there remain residual elements of the conditioning experience, as noted in spontaneous recovery.
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Spontaneous recovery: Previously extinguished responses may reappear upon presentation of the CS.
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PSYCH 100 Wiley Notes Chapter 5 - Learning Learning is...

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