PSYCH 100 Wiley Notes Chapter 2

PSYCH 100 Wiley Notes Chapter 2 - Characteristics of Good...

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Characteristics of Good Psychological Research Varieties of Psychological Research Psychologists are interested in determining the causes of mental events and behaviors. Sources for research are as varied as the number of ideas themselves. Standard research methods include: Reading the research literature, derive a hypothesis, investigate, apply a theory to a phenomenon, observation of interactions, and reverse the direction of causality. Standardized issues in research: Theories are systematic ways of organizing observations. Hypotheses are proposed relations between variables. Hypotheses are usually framed as cause-effect relationships. Variable : Any phenomenon that can vary along some dimension. Continuous: Can vary continuously (e.g. body weight). Categorical: Can take on fixed values (e.g. gender). Standardization keeps procedures as consistent as possible between participants. Generalizability of Research: Research studies take samples from a limited portion of the entire population. The sample is an estimate of the population. Sampling procedures must be representative. Generalizability refers to whether your research results can be applied to the entire population of interest, and requires: o Internal validity : Are the procedures of the study sound or are they flawed? o External validity : Does the experimental situation resemble the situation found in the real world? Measurement Issues in Research: Measure: A concrete means by which to determine the value of a variable. o The variable "illness" can be defined as the number of times that a subject visits a clinic. o The variable "hunger" can be defined in terms of how long a subject has gone without food. o The variable "aggression" can be defined in terms of how much shock a subject delivers to another person. Variable measures must be reliable and valid.
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PSYCH 100 Wiley Notes Chapter 2 - Characteristics of Good...

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