PSYCH 100 Notes Chapter 16 - CHAPTER 16 Social Cognition...

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CHAPTER 16 – Social Cognition Social Cognition Social Cognition – process by which people make sense of others, themselves, social interactions, and relationships First Impression – initial perception of another person that can be powerful in shaping future beliefs about them Halo Effect – tendency to attribute additional positive characteristics to someone who has one salient quality such as physical attractiveness (what is beautiful is good) Stereotypes and Prejudice Stereotypes – schemas about characteristics ascribed to a group of people based on qualities such as race, ethnicity, or gender rather than achievements or actions Prejudice – judging people based on negative stereotypes Discrimination – the behavioral component of prejudiced attitudes Authoritarian Personality – personality type that is prone to hate people who are different, linked to harsh parenting requiring strict obedience, repressed feelings of hate towards father Prejudice has changed in the last three decades, overt racial discrimination has been replaced by subtle attitudes or beliefs that are unfavorable towards minorities Implicit Racism – people have negative attitudes toward blacks, without much conscious thought blacks are treated worse (blacks receive less help in ambiguous situations, lower response rate from resumes) Explicit Racism – conscious racist attitudes Connectionist Model of Influence of Stereotypes on Judgments – when a white person observes a white or black man shoving someone, the person could interpret the shove as an aggressive act or a playful shove, “black” is associated with the trait “aggressive” though and activation spreads from “black” to “aggressive” to “violent push”, whereas “white” is not associated with “aggressive” Implicit Racism – people are more likely to suppress stereotypic attitudes under conditions of self-focus (staring into a mirror), fighting a stereotype does not make it go away though, it can actually intensify it Ingroup – people perceived as belonging to a valued group Outgroup – people perceived as not belonging to a valued group People tend to perceive members of outgroups as much more homogenous than they really are and to emphasize the individuality of ingroup members, viewing ingroup members in a positive light Social Identity Theory – people derive part of their identity from groups to which they belong, individuals develop a need to maintain positive feelings for their ingroup and negative feelings for the outgroup
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This note was uploaded on 11/10/2009 for the course PSYCH 100 taught by Professor Matchock,robert during the Spring '07 term at Pennsylvania State University, University Park.

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PSYCH 100 Notes Chapter 16 - CHAPTER 16 Social Cognition...

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