PSYCH 100 Notes Chapter 13

PSYCH 100 Notes Chapter 13 - CHAPTER 13 Life Span...

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CHAPTER 13 – Life Span Development Nature and Nurture Developmental Psychology – field that studies the way thought, feeling, and behavior develop through life Maturation – biologically based development according to an age related timetable EX: infants follow similar developmental patterns in the same sequence and age (crawling, walking) Development reflects the mutual influence of genes and environment. The question is not which is more important, or how much each contributes, but rather how nature and nurture contribute interactively to development. Critical Periods – periods of special sensitivity to specific types of learning that shape the capacity for future development (central to specific types of learning that modify future development) EX: neural connections that are not used or activated by the environment are gradually lost in infants Sensitive Periods – developmental periods during which environmental input is especially important, but not absolutely required, for future development in a domain, (important but not decisive) EX: children who do not experience human contact early in life can learn aspects of language, but syntax never reaches normal levels Attachment Social Development – predictable changes in interpersonal thought, feeling, and behavior Infancy – Attachment behavior was linked to feeding, mothers became secondary reinforcers through their association with food, definitive evidence proved this to be wrong however EX: Harry Harlow monkey research, wire mother provided milk while the cloth mother provided a sense of security, revealing a much deeper connection between a baby and its mother than strictly a hunger satisfying driving urge, men and women are equally adept at rearing infants Imprinting – John Bowlby theory of attachment, tendency of young animals of certain species to follow an animal to which they were exposed during a sensitive period early in their lives EX: New born geese are biologically prepared to follow whatever moving object they see first, imprinting offers evolutionary advantages, gosling that stay close to its mother or father is more likely to be fed, protected from predators, and taught skills useful for survival and reproduction Separation Anxiety – distress at separation from attachment figures, developing at about the same time as infants begin to crawl Individual Differences in Attachment Patterns – children typically exhibit a sequence of behaviors in response to separations from their attachment figures Mary Ainsworth and Strange Situation Attachment System – Mary Ainsworth, when a child feels threatened, the system “turns on”, leading the child to search for its attachment figure, once the child feels safe again it is free to play or explore the environment, the attachment figure becomes a safe base from which the child can explore and to whom it can periodically return for “emotional refueling”, “Strange Situation” separation experiment of infant
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PSYCH 100 Notes Chapter 13 - CHAPTER 13 Life Span...

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