PSYCH 100 Notes Chapter 3

PSYCH 100 Notes Chapter 3 - covers electrical lines derived...

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CHAPTER 3 – Biological Bases of Mental Life and Behavior Neurons: Basic Units of the Nervous System Neuron – cell in the nervous system specialized for communication and coordinating all functions of the body, about 10 – 100 billion neurons in the brain alone Sensory Neurons – transmits information from sensory cells in the body (receptors) to the brain Motor Neurons – transmits commands from the brain to the glands or musculature of the body Interneurons – connects other neurons to each other, found only in the brain and spinal cord Dendrites – branchlike extensions of the neuron that receive information from other cells Cell Body – part of the neuron that includes a nucleus containing the genetic material of the cell Axon – long extension from the cell body of a neuron through which electrical impulses pass Myelin Sheath – tight coat of cells which serves to isolate the axon from chemical or physical stimuli that might interfere with the transmission of nerve impulses and speeds neural transmission (similar to rubber that
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Unformatted text preview: covers electrical lines), derived from glial cells, white matter in brain Gray matter gets its color from cell bodies, dendrites, and unmyelinated axons Synapse – place at which the transmission of information between neurons occurs Grade Potential – voltage change that occurs when the neural membrane receives a signal from another cell, their strength diminishes as they travel along the cell membrane away from the source of the stimulation (ripples on a pond grow smaller with distance from a tossed stone’s point of impact) Action Potential – temporary shift in the polarity of the cell membrane which leads to the firing of a neuron, all or nothing quality (pulling the trigger of a gun will fire the same regardless how hard you pull) Neurotransmitters – chemicals that transmit information from one neuron to another (synaptic neurons) ♦ The Endocrine System ♦ The Peripheral Nervous System ♦ The Central Nervous System ♦ Genetics and Evolution...
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