PSYCH 243 Notes Ch 6 - Personal Patterns and Relationships...

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Personal Patterns and Relationships I. Ways of Viewing Relationships To understand personal patterns in relationships, insight is needed into the individual in relation to the group, the basis of the interaction, type of relationship, the relationship’s effects on each involved person, and the necessary components of satisfying relationships. A. The Individual and the Group 1. Individualism-Independence – emphasizes priority over one’s own goals and defines one’s self esteem in terms of personal attributes rather than those of a group. 2. Collectivism-Interdependence – interdependent upon each other more than in individualism societies (Asia, Africa, Central and South America). B. Models of Relationships 1. Social Exchange Model – based on principles of economy to maximize efficiency with minimum cost. If a relationship is evaluated favorably then it is likely to continue. a. Rewards and Costs – rewards are anything positive and desirable that continues the relationship (money, affection, support, respect), costs are any unwanted conditions or effects (effort, anxiety, loss of self esteem). b. Outcomes and Profit – the bottom line, difference between rewards and costs, in ongoing relationships rewards are expected to be more than costs. c. Comparison Level – we try to determine how satisfied we are with a particular relationship. i. Past Comparisons – feelings of satisfaction or dissatisfaction based on past relationships. ii. Available Comparisons – alternative relationships available at the moment. iii. Similar Situation Comparisons – if another’s relationship is more favorable, there are feelings of dissatisfaction. iv. Personal Resources and Control Comparisons – having little to offer and little control creates lower expectations, more likely to settle for a much less favorable outcome. 2. Social Role Model a. The Role – words and actions of cultural parts, social expectations. b. Role Expectations – when role expectations are not fulfilled, the result is stress. Social pressures are likely to be used in an effort to force individuals to fulfill role expectations. c. Role Conflict – stress in relationships can occur when a person feels uncomfortable playing a particular role or is caught in opposite role demands. 3. Transactional Model a. PAC Model – nurturing or judgmental parent, natural or hurt child, and the adult b. Games Model – uses the image of a game in which there have to be winners and losers II. Development of Relationships with Significant Others A. Levels of Relationship-Onion Model Levels of relationships are like onions in that deep and meaningful level of intimate self disclosure only occurs after the protective outermost superficial layer is stripped away. Gradually getting to know someone well over time creates mutual vulnerability. 1.
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This note was uploaded on 11/10/2009 for the course PSYCH 243 taught by Professor Brown,frederickmvanderwel,robrech during the Spring '08 term at Pennsylvania State University, University Park.

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PSYCH 243 Notes Ch 6 - Personal Patterns and Relationships...

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