Personality is a stable motivational force that determines how persons fulfill themselves physically,
psychologically, and socially. How and where this guiding information comes is complex, including
biological needs, personal experiences, and learned and imitated behaviors. The different ways of behaving,
of being in the world, or of relating to others is personality. It is based upon both learned and non learned
motivational forces within us that cause our conscious and unconscious behavior.
Reasons for Studying Personality
Development – assuming that the more each person knows about them self, the greater the
possibility to become all that they want to become
Education – helping persons understand them self for greater effectiveness in day to day living in
problem solving, relationships, and feelings of self worth
Therapy – understanding how ineffective and self defeating psychological disorders come from
major problems in living and how those effects could be minimized if not prevented
2. Causes Behind our Behavior – The Johari Window
Public – known to self and to others
Private – known to self and unknown to others
Social – known to others but unknown to self
Unconscious – unknown to self and to others
B. Like All Other People
Biologically we are like all other people in nearly all important genetic aspects. In 50 years, cultural
minorities in the U.S. will comprise 50% of the population.
C. Like Some Other People
Psychologically we are unique, like no other person in the specific combination of our genes,
culture, and learning. For some, the person is divided into a physical body (soma) and a mental mind
(psyche). Psychosomatic refers to effects on the body caused by our mind. Somatopsychology refers to
bodily effects on our thinking and behavior. Currently scientists believe we are made up of three parts,
our biological structure, our psychological consciousness, and our social nature.
Biological Reactivity and Limitations
In order to survive all life must react and adapt to the physical world that surrounds it. Our
bodies are not perfect biological machines and they do not last forever.
Cognitions – the psychological self includes very complex cognitive, communicating, and
rational emotional components. Cognitive thinking refers to perceiving, organizing, interpreting,
remembering, reasoning, problem solving, decision making, and creating.
Premeditate – plan by thinking beforehand how something might occur
Experience – sense clearly and accurately what that something is
iii. Reflect – remember and learn from the experience by comparing the real experience to what
had been premeditated
Communications – humans communicate through verbal and nonverbal language channels
including words and gestures. Communication increases chances for survival by means of
cooperation, division of labor, and mutual defense. It can allow group synergy to occur.