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Pyschology Notes

Pyschology Notes - Modules Notes Definitions Module 1 The...

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Modules Notes / Definitions Module 1 - The History and Scope of Psychology Psychology o The scientific study of behavior and mental processes Behavior - is anything an organism does Yelling Smiling Blinking Sweating Mental Processes - are the internal, subjective experiences we infer from behavior Sensations Perceptions Dreams Thoughts Beliefs Feelings Socrates and Plato (469-399 BC) (428-348 BC) o They concluded that mind is separable from body and continues after the body dies and that knowledge is innate (born within us) Aristotle (384-322 BC) o Said that knowledge is not preexisting; it grows from the experienced gained Rene Descartes (1595-1650) o Said that spirits flowed from the brain through nerves (which he thought were hollow) to the muscle provoking movement. o Memories formed as experiences opened pores in the brain…how the spirits got into the brain John Locke (1632-1704) o Wrote a paper which argued that the mind at birth is a blank slate where experience “writes”
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Wilhelm Wundt – established the fist psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig, Germany Empiricism – the view that knowledge comes from experience via the senses, and science flourishes through observation and experiment Structuralism – an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind Functionalism – a school of psychology that focused on how mental and behavioral processes function, how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish Humanistic Psychology – historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people; used personalized methods to study personality in hopes of fostering personal growth Nature-nurture Issue – the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors Natural Selection – the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations Levels of Analysis – the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social- cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon Biopsychosocial Approach – An integrated perspective that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis Basic Research – pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base Applied Research – scientific study that aims to solve practical problems Counseling Psychology – a branch of psychology that assists people with problems on living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being Clinical psychology – a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders Psychiatry – a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical treatments as well as psychological therapy
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