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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 1: Atoms, the chemical building blocks of matter, arranged into molecules , which are arranged into organelles , which are components of Cells, which are subunits of Organisms . An Amoeba is a single-celled organism, and it accomplishes the uptake and processing of nutrients, excretion of wastes, response to environmental stimuli, reproduction, etc. Multicellular organisms exhibit three main structural levels above the cell: 1) Similar cells are grouped into tissues 2) Specific arrangements of different tissues form organs 3) Organs are grouped into organ systems Atom Molecule Organelle Cell Tissue Organ Organism Sometimes, it extends beyond a single organism. When many different species live together, they form an ecosystem. Emergent Properties: properties that emerge with each step upward in the hierarchy of biological order that could not have emerged at the simpler levels. Example: There are properties in protein that do not emerge in the atoms that form protein. Reductionism: breaking down a higher level of order into its components. This poses a problem because sometimes it loses its function. However, it is too complex to not break down. Example: By breaking down cells, we discovered how DNA is the chemical basis of inheritance. The Cell is the lowest level of structure capable of performing all the activities of life. The Cell Theory: Anton van Leeuwenhoek discovered organisms to be single-celled by magnifying different specimens. Later, Schleiden and Schwann acknowledged cells as the universal units of life, creating the basis of the theory that all living things consist of cells and cells come from other cells. ALL CELLS 1) Are enclosed by a membrane that regulates the passage of materials between the cell and its surroundings 2) Contain DNA, the heritable material that directs the cells main activities...
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