Questions Energetics and Mitochondria1. What are the stages or levels of Carbon Oxidation/reduction and for Oxygen. Why is oxygen toxic to anaerobes?2. Be sure you can explain how ATP (and NADH) is made in the last two stages of glycolysis.3. Explain what happens in glycolysis when Oxygen is limiting and why?4. Explain how carbon flows into the citric acid cycle and how/where it comes out and what happens to the electrons?5. What is the function of NAD and FAD - how are they similar and how are they different? Which has a more negative redox potential when reduced?6. What are the electron transport complexes in the Mitochondria and how are electrons transferred between complexes. Which complexes pump protons and why is FADH2 worth less ATP than NADH. What is the role of ubiquinone (CoQ and cytochrome C in the electron transport process?7. Explain (be able to calculate) proton motive force. How is it expressed (units).
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