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Genetics notes ALL CH2 - Chapter 2 Heredity The passing of...

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Chapter 2 Heredity: The passing of characteristics from one generation to the next. Genetics is the scientific study of heredity Genetics is largely the study of genetic material and how this material effects the characteristics of life forms Science is a human activity and is therefore influenced by the characteristics of humans such as our brain structure, politics, greed and other human characteristics. Science is rooted in philosophy , the branch of academic study devoted to the systematic examination of basic concepts such as knowledge, truth, existence, reality, casualty and freedom. Science began as a branch of philosophy called natural philosophy , the study of the knowledge of the natural world. o Some people define philosophy as the study of the knowledge of the natural world Today the branch of philosophy that sets the boundaries on science, the branch that determines what is and what is not science is called the philosophy of science By the philosophy of science, science can only consider those ideas that meet two criteria. The idea must be about the physical universe The idea must be falsifiable Falsifiable: An idea is falsifiable if we can imagine observations that we could make in the physical universe that could disprove the idea Since science can only consider a limited range of ideas, science does not define reality;. It does not determine what is real and what is not real. Art is real and it has powerful effects on humans and yet by the philosophy of science it is outside the realm of scientific investigation. Science can never prove anything true because there is always an alternative explanation for the outcome of a particular experiment The outcome won’t be able to distinguish between the two explanations One reason to study philosophy is that it provides us with an opportunity to examine our fundamental assumptions.
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The history of science gives us insight as to how humans have gone about developing scientific theory and something about the typical approaches of the human brain. As we better understand the interaction of out brains with reality we might learn how to overcome some of our limitations. *Define the concept gene. The definition is currently developing. *For our purposes in this course we will define a gene as nucleic acid segment, DNA or RNA that can ultimately direct the production of a RNA that affects the phenotype. It includes at least one region of nucleotides that promote accurate transcription. The term gene is imprecise it can refer to the locus or allele. (We will revisit this later) +last years+ The term gene has been used as a synonym for the concept locus or the concept allele .
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