Chapter 4 Lecture

Chapter 4 Lecture - 1 Solution Section 4.1 homogeneous...

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1 1 Solution homogeneous mixture of two or more substances Solvent the component that is present in greater quantity Solute the other substances in the solution; they are dissolved in the solvent Section 4.1 2 Electrolytes solutes that exist as ions in solution; soluble ionic compounds are electrolytes; electrolytes are solutions that conduct electricity Dissociation soluble ionic compounds Ionization soluble nonionic compounds Section 4.1 3 Dissociation and Ionization Dissociation NaCl (s) Na + (aq) + Cl (aq) Ionization HCl (g) H + (aq) + Cl (aq) Section 4.1
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2 4 Nonelectrolytes do not form ions when dissolved in water; many molecular substances are nonelectrolytes; their solutions do not conduct electricity C 6 H 12 O 6(s) C 6 H 12 O 6(aq) Section 4.1 5 Figure 4.2 Electron distribution in molecules of H 2 and H 2 O 6 Polar Water Molecule Animation http://www.northland.cc.mn.us/biology/Biology1111/animations/hydrogenbonds.html
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3 7 The Orientation of Water molecules around Positive & Negative ions 8 NaCl Dissolution in Water Animation http://www.northland.cc.mn.us/biology/Biology1111/animations/dissolve.html http://www.mhhe.com/physsci/chemistry/essentialchemistry/flash/molvie1.swf 9 Electrolytes strong electrolytes substances that exist almost completely as ions in solutions; nearly all soluble ionic compounds are strong electrolytes weak electrolytes compounds that only partially ionize in solution Section 4.1
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4 10 Electrolyte Comparison Section 4.1 11 E-Instruction Which of these is the strongest electrolyte? A. HX B. HY C. HZ 12 Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry Section 4.3 Acids Bases Salts HA H + + A - MOH M + + OH - MA M + + A -
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5 13 Acids substances that ionize to form a hydrogen ion; acids increase the concentration of H + (and are called proton donors); acids decrease the concentration of OH monoprotic - yield 1 H + per molecule of acid diprotic - yield 2 H + per molecule of acid triprotic - yield 3 H + per molecule of acid Section 4.3 14 Acids strong acids HCl HBr HI HNO 3 H 2 SO 4 HClO 3 HClO 4 weak acids everything else Section 4.3 15 E-Instruction Classify the following acids as weak or strong: HF and H 2 SO 4 A. weak, weak B. weak, strong C. strong, strong D. strong, weak
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6 16 Strong vs Weak Acid Animation http://www.mhhe.com/physsci/chemistry/essentialchemistry/flash/acid13.swf 17 Nomenclature Review – Simple Anions -ide ending indicates a binary compound (composed of only two elements) ___ -ide Cl NaCl Sodium Chloride KF Potassium Fluoride 18 Nomenclature Review - Oxyanions representative - ate ion hypo ___ -ite ClO ___ -ite ClO 2 ___ -ate ClO 3 per- ___ -ate ClO 4 Section 2.8
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7 19 Acid Nomenclature -ides go to hydro ic acids -ates go to -ic acids -ites go to -ous acids Section 2.8 20 Acid Nomenclature Acids from binary compounds (ide ending, ie hydrogen chloride) drop the ide ending and add prefix hydro and suffix ic and the word acid.
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Chapter 4 Lecture - 1 Solution Section 4.1 homogeneous...

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