Chapter 8 - 1 Bonding Section 8.1 Ionic Bonds Associated...

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1 1 Bonding Ionic Bonds Covalent Bonds Metallic Bonds Associated with ionic compounds; electrons are transferred Associated with molecular compounds; electrons are shared Associated with pure metals Section 8.1 2 Ionic Bonding Results from the electrostatic attraction between a positive and a negative ion The ions are formed from the transfer of one or more electrons Metals tend to lose electrons to form cations Non-metals tend to gain electrons to form anions Section 8.2 3 Questions Where does the electron that is lost by the metal go? Where does the electron that is gained by the non-metal come from? Section 8.2
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2 4 Lewis Dot Structures Shows how the valence electrons are arranged among the atoms in the molecule Utilizes the “Octet Rule” which can be summarized as Atoms tend to gain, lose, or share electrons until they are surrounded by eight valence electrons (except Hydrogen) Section 8.1 5 Ionic Bonds and Lewis Dot Structures Na + Cl NaCl How many valence electrons does a sodium atom have? How many valence electrons does a chlorine atom have? 1 7 Section 6 Sodium Chloride, NaCl Na + Cl Na + Cl Section 8.2
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3 7 Hydrogen, H 2 H + H H H A single bond is characterized by the sharing of two electrons. Section 8.3 Section 8.3, 5 8 Methane, CH 4 How many total valence electrons are there in methane? Carbon – 4 Hydrogen – 1 4 + 4(1) = 8 total valence electrons Section 8.3 Section 8.3, 5 9 Methane Continued What is the central atom? Carbon How many single bonds are there? 4 How many non- bonding electrons are on the central atom? 0 C H H H H Section 8.3 Section 8.3, 5
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4 10 Methane Continued Lewis dot structures can also be drawn with lines, rather than dots. Each line represents two electrons. A single line represents a single bond. C H H H H Section 8.3 Section 8.3, 5 11 “How To” Draw Lewis Structures Count the total number of valence electrons in the molecule or ion. Identify the central atom and place the other elements around the central atom. Place eight electrons around each element in the structure, except for hydrogen (which gets 2).
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Chapter 8 - 1 Bonding Section 8.1 Ionic Bonds Associated...

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