CH%2043%20Animal%20Nutrition%20Notes[1] - BLY122 Chapter 43...

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Animal Nutrition 1 BLY122 A. Hunter from C. S. Major Chapter 43 Animal Nutrition I. Nutritional Requirements A. Meeting Basic Needs 1. A nutrient is any substance that an organism needs to remain alive. 2. Two general types of nutrients are required: a. Reduced carbon compounds that can be oxidized to produce ATP b. Elements and molecules that are needed to synthesize body components and sustain cells 3. Recommended daily allowances (RDAs) were devised to identify the daily needs of healthy people. a. Humans must obtain the eight essential amino acids that we cannot synthesize. b. Vitamins are compounds that often function as coenzymes in metabolic reactions, and are needed only in minute amounts. c. Essential elements are used in a wide variety of ways by the body. 4. Chemical energy in foods a. The Calorie is the unit of measurement for food energy. b. On a food label, 1 Calorie corresponds to 1 kilocalorie of energy that is released when the food is oxidized by cells. c. Most food energy is in the form of carbohydrates and fats. 5. RDAs are subject to change as new research becomes available. a. A balanced diet generally fulfills all nutritional requirements. b. Supplements are not normally needed and can cause problems if abused. c. Women may need to take iron supplements due to the loss of iron in hemoglobin during menstruation. B. Nutrition and Athletic Performance 1. Bergström et al. (1967) studied the performance of endurance athletes. a. An earlier hypothesis held that fatty acids provided the fuel for extended exertion. b. Bergström hypothesized that glycogen provides the immediate fuel for extended exertion. c. Experiment: Researchers gave nine students diets that varied in levels of carbohydrates and fats, and tested students’ stored glycogen and physical endurance. d. Results: e. Conclusion: The data support the hypothesis that a diet rich in carbohydrates supports optimal performance. 2. Subsequent experiments confirmed the Bergström hypothesis. a. Carbohydrate loading is now a standard part of endurance training. b. Ingesting carbohydrates immediately before a race reduces performance. II. Obtaining Food: The Structure and Function of Beaks, Teeth, and Mouthparts A. Across animal groups there is a strong correlation between the size and shape of mouthparts with the size and shape of food sources. 1. Some lack extensive mouthparts; instead, they ingest food whole (maggots, snakes) . 2. Insects have a variety of mouthparts, from pinching mandibles of leaf-eaters to needlelike proboscis for sucking blood or nectar. 3. Humans eat plants and animals, and have molars for grinding and canines for tearing. 4. Other mammals eat only meat and have only sharp teeth designed for tearing. B.
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CH%2043%20Animal%20Nutrition%20Notes[1] - BLY122 Chapter 43...

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