chapter51AnimalBehavior[1]

chapter51AnimalBehavior[1] - BLY122 Chapter 51 Animal...

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BLY122 A. Hunter from C. S. Major Chapter 51 Animal Behavior I. Types of Behavior—An Overview A. Behavior is action—a response to a stimulus. 1. Proximate causes determine how actions occur. 2. Ultimate causes determine why actions occur. 3. Learning is defined as a change in behavior that results in a specific experience in the life of an individual. a. Example: Spiny lobsters spend the day hiding in cracks and holes in the coral reef and at night, they emerge and wander in search of food. b. Example: This figure is an excellent example of a way to summarize general observations about behavior. B. Fixed action patterns (FAPs) are highly stereotypical behavior patterns. 1. FAPs have three characteristics: a. There is almost no variation in how they are performed. b. They are species specific. c. Once the sequence of actions begins, it typically continues until completion. 2. FAPs are examples of innate behavior—types of behavior that are inherited and show little variation based on learning. 3. Hypothesis: Territorial defense in European robins is a FAP that is released by the sight of orange feathers. 4. Example: Marla Sokolowski discovered an important behavioral trait controlled by a single gene. She noticed that some fruit-fly larvae tended to move away from food after eating, while others remained in place. By breeding “rovers” and “sitters” that possessed other distinct genetic markers, Sokolowski and colleagues were able to map the gene responsible for the behaviors. C. What Is the Adaptive Significance of FAPs? 1. Natural selection cannot produce adaptations to unusual or “trick” situations. 2. Even though the sign stimuli that release FAPs are extremely simple, they are exceptionally important for the individual’s fitness—its ability to survive and produce offspring. D. Conditional strategies are behavioral responses that depend on conditions. Example: Female fish that change their sex and become male. In some coral-reef fish, a group of female fish live inside a boundary dominated by one large male fish. When that male dies, the largest female fish changes sex and becomes dominant. II. Learning A. Simple types of learning consist of classical conditioning and imprinting. 1. In classical conditioning, individuals are trained by experience to give the same response to more than one stimulus—even a stimulus that has nothing to do with the normal response. 2.
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This note was uploaded on 11/11/2009 for the course BLY 459 taught by Professor Obrien,j during the Spring '08 term at S. Alabama.

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chapter51AnimalBehavior[1] - BLY122 Chapter 51 Animal...

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