Chapter%2030%20Green%20Plants%20to%20post[1]

Chapter%2030%20Green%20Plants%20to%20post[1] - Green plants...

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Green plants include both the green algae and the land plants. Biologists study them because virtually every other terrestrial organism rely on plants for food and a healthy environment (ecosystem services). Land plants were the first multicellular organisms to live on land. A series of key adaptations allowed them to survive with their tissues constantly exposed to dry air. In terms of total mass, plants dominate today's terrestrial environments. Once plants were able to grow on land, a sequence of evolutionary changes made it possible to reproduce efficiently—even in extremely dry environments.
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I. Green Plants - A. Plants are essential to human life. 1. provide ecosystem services ecosystem services . - improve atmosphere, surface water, & soil; a. produce O 2 via photosynthesis. b. build soil c. plant roots prevent erosion d. hold water, prevent flooding & depletion. e. moderate local climates by providing shade & blocking wind.
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2. plants are primary food producers a. produce sugars & oils by photosynthesis b. Plants - autotrophs (1) All other organisms are heterotrophs . (2) Herbivores eat plants, carnivores eat herbivores, and omnivores eat both.
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3. Plants - key to carbon cycle carbon cycle on land. a. Plants -CO 2 from- environment make sugar. b. Plants fix more CO 2 than they generate.
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B. Agricultural Practice Improvement 1. Crop domestication = evolution of human culture. 2. Domesticated, modern grains derived from wild species thousands of years ago. a. Domestication of plants - via artificial selection. b. Artificial selection Artificial selection responsible for existing world crops.
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C. Maximization of Plants for Fuel and Clothing 1. Historically wood was primary fuel source. 2. Recent centuries, coal our primary energy source. 3. Now, use of fossil fuels replaced wood burning. 4. Other plant-based fuels 5. Currently leading use of wood and other plant materials is in building materials, paper, and clothing.
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D. Discovery of New Plant Usages 1. Bioprospecting Bioprospecting - exploring new sources for drugs, insecticides, herbicides, etc. 2. Plants have many medicinal compounds. a. Vinblastine (anticancer) isolated from rosy periwinkle b. 25% of all US prescriptions last year have one molecule derived from plants.
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