11Uniramia09[1] - XII A B C Subphylum Uniramia 2009...

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38 XII. Subphylum Uniramia 2009 A. Characteristics 1. One pair of antennae 2. Appendages single branched B. Class Insecta 1. Adult characteristics a. Three tagmata: head, thorax, & abdomen b. Four pairs of head appendages (1) Antennae (2) Mandibles (3) 1st & 2nd maxillae c. Three pairs of thoracic (walking) appendages d. Wings 2. Development a. Direct development (1) Produce NYMPHS that resemble adults but are without functional wings (2) Adult form acquired gradually through a succession of molts b. Indirect development (1) Metamorphosis (2) LARVAE bear little resemblance to adults (a) Caterpillar (b) Grub (3) PUPA (a) Inactive (b) Cocoon (4) ADULT (a) Wings (b) Does not molt C. Order Anoplura - sucking lice 1. Ectoparasites of mammals 2. Tests of evolutionary theory a. Lice are usually species specific (1) Different species of mammals have hair shafts with specific diameters (2) The grasping appendages of lice are adapted for hairs of host b. Phylogenic trees ( i.e. r elatedness) of lice mirror those of their hosts 3. Characteristics a Wingless b Mouthparts adapted for sucking (1) Pierce skin (2) Drink blood
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39 4. Pediculus humanus humanus (=body) and P. h. capitis (= head) lice are varieties of the same species Picture Slide: Head Louse & Pubic or Crab Louse; http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in261 a. Spread by combs and clothing Picture Slide: Human Body Lice on Clothing; http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in261 b. Eggs (= NITS) cemented to clothing and hair Picture Slide: Nits on human hair shafts; http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in261 c. Vectors for 3 important human diseases that are NOT currently reported from United States (1) Epidemic or louse-borne typhus caused by Rickettsia prowazeki (2) Trench fever caused by Rochalimaea quintana (formerly known as Rickettsia quintana ) (3) Louse-borne relapsing fever Borrellia recurrentis d. Humans infected when they scratch bite and rub bacteria in louse feces into wound e. Important in wartime when people huddle together and do not bathe Picture Slide: WWII sign warning soldiers of connection between lice & typhus Word Slide: “[DDT} acquired a reputation as a cure for insomnia, since those treated were able to sleep without the distraction of the lice, often for the first time in their lives.” The Fred L. Soper Papers: http://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/VV/Views/Exhibit/narrative/typhus.html 5. Pthirus pubis (= crab louse) a. Pubic areas b. Spread by contact c. Not a vector of human disease D. Order Hemiptera (True bugs) 1. Characteristics a. Wings (1) Structure of forewings gives name to order (a) Bases are thick and leathery (b) Apical ends are membranous and overlap at rest (2) Hindwings membranous b. Piercing-sucking beak
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11Uniramia09[1] - XII A B C Subphylum Uniramia 2009...

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