21Malaria09[1] - XXI Malaria[MAL = bad ARIA = air(Chapter 9...

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80 XXI. Malaria [MAL = bad; ARIA = air] (Chapter 9) 2009 A. Order Haemosporida, Family Plasmodiidae 1. Live in vertebrate tissues and blood 2. SCHIZOGONY (asexual reproduction) in vertebrates 3. SPOROGONY (sexual reproduction) in insects 4. GAMETOGONY (asexual reproduction) in vertebrates B. Effect upon human culture 1. Control of malaria has been a major contributor to the world’s population explosion. a. Death rate has been significantly reduced b. Estimated that before WWII, 1/2 the deaths in the world were attributable to malaria c. Today malaria kills about 1.5 million people (mostly children) annually Picture Slide: The Middle Passage; http://www.juneteenth.com/survival.htm 2. Slavery in the New World a. Why didn’t colonialists enslave Native Americans? b. Native Americans had no resistance to European and African diseases. c. Utilization of Native American physical labor was not efficient, because so many sickened and died after contact with Europeans. d. The slave trade imported Africans because they were resistant to malaria and other diseases Picture Slide: Battle of the Little Big Horn; http://www.getty.edu/artsednet/images/P/kicking-xl.jpeg 3. Diseases (especially smallpox), not military defeats, killed most of the Native Americans during colonial expansion. a. Mississippi Mound people interacted with the first European explorers, but their settlements had been completely abandoned by the time later explorers arrived. b. Repeatedly, deadly epidemics would occur among Indian groups soon after contact with Europeans c. This was interpreted as “Manifest Destiny”, evidence that it was “God’s will” that the land belonged to white settlers. 4. Question: Why did not Europeans emigrate to and colonize the African continent as they did the New World? Word Slide: Description of the expedition led by H.D. Trotter in 1841. “They travelled in three iron-built steamboats, Albert, Wilberforce, and London ., which reached a point on the Niger about 100 miles from the sea on 26 August. Fever broke out at the beginning of September ‘and ceased not until it had paralysed the whole expedition’. They pushed on, but sickness became so prevalent that Wilberforce and London were sent back to the coast on 19 September, laden with their own sick and those from Albert . Albert steamed further up the river but was forced to return on 4 October, reaching the coast ten days later, having been on the river for nine weeks. Of the 145 Europeans, 130 fell sick of fever and 50 died. Eleven of the twenty-five British coloureds
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81 were attacked by fever, but all of these recovered. None of the 133 Africans recruited from Sierra Leone fell sick. Cartwright, F.F., 1972, Disease and History , Dorset Press, New York, p. 140 Answer: Europeans risked death by disease when if they left the sea coast and entered the interior of the African continent.
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21Malaria09[1] - XXI Malaria[MAL = bad ARIA = air(Chapter 9...

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