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Unformatted text preview: modules 2 &3 15:17 • Module 2: Thinking Critically with Psychological Science a. Need for Psychological science i. Growing knowledge disproves natural intelligence through hindsight bias and judgmental overconfidence ii. Sense and nonsense differentiated through curiosity skepticism and humility iii. If rely on solely common sense and intuition then misguided iv. Hindsight bias: I knew it all along phenomenon the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have forseen it v. Overconfidence hinders our everyday judgement vi. Operational definition: statement to define research variables vii. The scientific attitude encourages critical thinking viii.Be skeptical but not cynical, be open but not gullible ix. Critical skepticism: what do you mean, how do you know x. Need humility because may need to reject own ideals xi. Critical thinking: ask questions, thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions instead examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence and assesses conclusions xii. Scientific method 1. Theory: an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations 2. Hypothesis: a testable prediction, often implied by a theory b. Frequently asked questions about psychology i. Can lab experiments simulate day-day life 1. As long as take general principles not specifics then yes ii. Does behavior depend on one’s culture 1. Yes do tend to act like culture yet many cultures are similar a. Cultured greetings iii. Does behavior vary with gender 1. Gender matters, biology determines then culture further bends iv. Why study animals 1. To learn about humans v. Free of judgments 1. No psychology is not free of judgments because of interpretation Module 3: research strategies, how psychologists ask and answer questions • All these do not explain behavior they describe it! • Case study- an observation technique when one is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles a. Can suggest hypothesis for further study b. Studies one person greatly in depth • Survey: a technique for ascending the self reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them a. Must have random sampling and beware of the effect of wording choices b. False consensus effect the overestimate others’ agreement with us c. Studies many people in less depth • Naturalistic observation: watching and recording the behavior of organisms in their natural environment • Correlation: a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together and thus of how well either factor predicts the other...
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- Fall '08
- Classical Conditioning, representative, Unconditioned stimulus