CS307chapter 9 - Working Women: Breaking the Barriers...

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Working Women: Breaking the Barriers Chapter 9 This chapter discusses the U.S. legal movement toward women’s equality and women professionals in the criminal justice system How does this chapter fit with women and crime? o In many ways, women’s attempt to hold paying jobs has itself been criminalized by the law o Restricting women’s employment is usually most extreme in women’s entrance into what have traditionally been considered “men’s” jobs The private sphere includes the home and care of the family, while the public sphere includes life outside the home, such as in the paid labor force, the voting booth and bars. The precedent for separate spheres was set and remained for centuries, with the assumption that men are (and should be) “breadwinners” and women (should and do) care for the home and children – for free Legal doctrines (laws) have “reflected and reinforced” men’s dominance of the public sphere and women’s confinement to the private sphere While sex discrimination has been prevalent throughout history, sex discrimination as a legal concern is a recent phenomenon Many women have worked outside the home, meanwhile their work inside the home often remains unrecognized and undervalued Frontier women, poor women and slave women have always worked outside the home Women who worked outside the home have tended to be single, black and poor; but married, white and middle class women have increasingly been employed outside of the home since the 1940s Domestic work in a woman’s own home is unpaid, while domestic work in other people’s homes is performed almost exclusively by women who are paid poorly Housework is not covered by the Social Security Act, often leaving divorced and widowed full time homemakers without security for their labors “Women adrift” tended to be white, unmarried women from poor families who migrated to the cities, largely out of economic necessity but also to escape abuse or stigma or to find adventure these women were frequently below the poverty line because women’s wages were set for dependent wives and daughters who had access to additional (male) resources and income various reasons have been given to restrict women from jobs: often hearing “it is for their own good” or to “protect” women from certain physically grueling and dangerous jobs, but it often excludes women from many occupations and limits
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CS307chapter 9 - Working Women: Breaking the Barriers...

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