Chapter2-Book

# Chapter2-Book - Chapter 2 Method of Separation of Variables...

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Chapter 2 Method of Separation of Variables 2.1 Introduction In Chapter 1 we developed from physical principles an understanding of the heat equation and its corresponding initial and boundary conditions. We are ready to pursue the mathematical solution of some typical problems involving partial diFerential equations. We will use a technique called the method of separation of variables. You will have to become an expert in this method, and so we will discuss quite a few examples. We will emphasize problem-solving techniques, but we must also understand how not to misuse the technique. A relatively simple but typical, problem for the equation of heat conduction occurs for a one-dimensional rod (0 x L ) when all the thermal coeﬃcients are constant. Then the PDE, ∂u ∂t = k 2 u ∂x 2 + Q ( x,t ) , t> 0 0 <x<L , (2.1.1) must be solved subject to the initial condition, u ( x, 0) = f ( x ) , 0 , (2.1.2) and two boundary conditions. ±or example, if both ends of the rod have prescribed temperature, then u (0 ,t )= T 1 ( t ) u ( L,t T 2 ( t ) . 0 (2.1.3) The method of separation of variables is used when the partial diFerential equation and the boundary conditions are linear and homogeneous, concepts we now explain. 35

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36 Chapter 2. Method of Separation of Variables 2.2 Linearity As in the study of ordinary diFerential equations, the concept of linearity will be very important for us. A linear operator L by de±nition satis±es L ( c 1 u 1 + c 2 u 2 )= c 1 L ( u 1 )+ c 2 L ( u 2 ) (2.2.1) for any two functions u 1 and u 2 , where c 1 and c 2 are arbitrary constants. ∂/∂t and 2 /∂x 2 are examples of linear operators since they satisfy (2.2.1): ∂t ( c 1 u 1 + c 2 u 2 c 1 ∂u 1 + c 2 2 2 ∂x 2 ( c 1 u 1 + c 2 u 2 c 1 2 u 1 2 + c 2 2 u 2 2 . It can be shown (see Exercise 2.2.1) that any linear combination of linear operators is a linear operator. Thus, the heat operator k 2 2 is also a linear operator. A linear equation for u is of the form L ( u f, (2.2.2) where L is a linear operator and f is known. Examples of linear partial diferential equations are = k 2 u 2 + f ( x,t ) (2.2.3) = k 2 u 2 + α ( ) u + f ( ) (2.2.4) 2 u 2 + 2 u ∂y 2 = 0 (2.2.5) = 3 u 3 + α ( ) u. (2.2.6) Examples of nonlinear partial diFerential equations are = k 2 u 2 + α ( ) u 4 (2.2.7) + u = 3 u 3 . (2.2.8) The u 4 and u∂u/∂x terms are nonlinear; they do not satisfy (2.2.1).
2.2. Linearity 37 If f = 0, then (2.2.2) becomes L ( u ) = 0, called a linear homogeneous equa- tion. Examples of linear homogeneous partial diFerential equations include the heat equation, ∂u ∂t k 2 u ∂x 2 =0 , (2.2.9) as well as (2.2.5) and (2.2.6). ±rom (2.2.1) it follows that L (0) = 0 (let c 1 = c 2 = 0). Therefore, u = 0 is always a solution of a linear homogeneous equation. ±or example, u = 0 satis²es the heat equation (2.2.9). We call u =0the trivial solution of a linear homogeneous equation. The simplest way to test whether an equation is homogeneous is to substitute the function u identically equal to zero. If u 0 satis²es a linear equation, then it must be that f = 0 and hence the linear equation is homogeneous. Otherwise, the equation is said to be nonhomogeneous [e.g., (2.2.3) and (2.2.4)].

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## This note was uploaded on 11/13/2009 for the course MECH PDE taught by Professor Dr. during the Spring '09 term at Technische Universiteit Delft.

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Chapter2-Book - Chapter 2 Method of Separation of Variables...

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