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CSE361S-MemoryAllocationandUsage - Keeping Track of Free...

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Unformatted text preview: Keeping Track of Free Blocks Method 1: Implicit list using lengths -- links all blocks Method 5 4 6 2 Explicit Free Lists A B C Use data space for link pointers Typically doubly linked Still need boundary tags for coalescing Forward links A 4 44 46 C 64 44 B 4 Back links Method 2: Explicit list among the free blocks using Method pointers within the free blocks 5 4 6 2 Method 3: Segregated free lists Method Different free lists for different size classes Method 4: Blocks sorted by size (not discussed) Method Can use a balanced tree (e.g. Red-Black tree) with pointers within each free block, and the length used as a key –1– –2– It is important to realize that links are not necessarily in the same order as the blocks Allocating From Explicit Free Lists pred Before: free block succ Freeing With Explicit Free Lists Insertion policy: Where in the free list do you put a newly freed block? LIFO (last-in-first-out) policy Insert freed block at the beginning of the free list Pro: simple and constant time Con: studies suggest fragmentation is worse than address ordered. pred After: (with splitting) succ free block Address-ordered policy Insert freed blocks so that free list blocks are always in address order » i.e. addr(pred) < addr(curr) < addr(succ) Con: requires search Pro: studies suggest fragmentation is better than LIFO –3– –4– Freeing With a LIFO Policy pred (p) succ (s) Freeing With a LIFO Policy (cont) p before: s f self s f a a Case 1: a-a-a aInsert self at beginning of free list a self a Case 3: f-a-a fSplice out prev, coalesce with self, and add to beginning of free list p after: p s p1 s1 f p1 after: Case 2: a-a-f aSplice out next, coalesce self and next, and add to beginning of free list before: p2 self f p2 f s2 a self f before: Case 4: f-a-f fs Splice out prev and next, coalesce with self, and add to beginning of list after: p a f s1 s2 –5– –6– Page Explicit List Summary Comparison to implicit list: Allocate is linear time in number of free blocks instead of total blocks -- much faster allocates when most of the memory is full Slightly more complicated allocate and free since needs to splice blocks in and out of the list Some extra space for the links (2 extra words needed for each block) Keeping Track of Free Blocks Method 1: Implicit list using lengths -- links all blocks Implicit 5 4 6 2 Method 2: Explicit list among the free blocks using Explicit pointers within the free blocks 5 4 6 2 Main use of linked lists is in conjunction with segregated free lists Keep multiple linked lists of different size classes, or possibly for different types of objects Method 3: Segregated free list Segregated Different free lists for different size classes Method 4: Blocks sorted by size Can use a balanced tree (e.g. Red-Black tree) with pointers within each free block, and the length used as a key –8– –7– Segregated Storage Each size class has its own collection of blocks size 1-2 3 4 5-8 9-16 Simple Segregated Storage Separate heap and free list for each size class No splitting To allocate a block of size n: If free list for size n is not empty, allocate first block on list (note, list can be implicit or explicit) If free list is empty, get a new page create new free list from all blocks in page allocate first block on list Constant time To free a block: Often have separate size class for every small size (2,3,4,…) For larger sizes typically have a size class for each power of 2 Add to free list If page is empty, return the page for use by another size (optional) Tradeoffs: – 10 – –9– Fast, but can fragment badly Segregated Fits Array of free lists, each one for some size class To allocate a block of size n: Search appropriate free list for block of size m > n If an appropriate block is found: Split block and place fragment on appropriate list (optional) For More Info on Allocators D. Knuth, “The Art of Computer Programming, Second Edition”, Addison Wesley, 1973 Edition” The classic reference on dynamic storage allocation If no block is found, try next larger class Repeat until block is found To free a block: Coalesce and place on appropriate list (optional) Wilson et al, “Dynamic Storage Allocation: A Survey and Critical Review”, Proc. 1995 Int’l Workshop on Review” Int’ Memory Management, Kinross, Scotland, Sept, 1995. Comprehensive survey Available from CS:APP student site (csapp.cs.cmu.edu) Tradeoffs Faster search than sequential fits (i.e., log time for power of two size classes) Controls fragmentation of simple segregated storage Coalescing can increase search times Deferred coalescing can help – 11 – – 12 – Page Implicit Memory Management: Garbage Collection Garbage collection: automatic reclamation of heapcollection: automatic heapallocated storage -- application never has to free void foo() { int *p = malloc(128); return; /* p block is now garbage */ } Garbage Collection How does the memory manager know when memory can be freed? In general we cannot know what is going to be used in the future since it depends on conditionals But we can tell that certain blocks cannot be used if there are no pointers to them Need to make certain assumptions about pointers Memory manager can distinguish pointers from nonpointers All pointers point to the start of a block Cannot hide pointers (e.g., by coercing them to an int, and then back again) Common in functional languages, scripting languages, and modern object oriented languages: Lisp, ML, Java, Perl, Mathematica, Variants (conservative garbage collectors) exist for C Variants and C++ – 13 – Cannot collect all garbage – 14 – Classical GC algorithms Mark and sweep collection (McCarthy, 1960) Does not move blocks (unless you also “compact”) Memory as a Graph We view memory as a directed graph Each block is a node in the graph Each pointer is an edge in the graph Locations not in the heap that contain pointers into the heap are called root nodes (e.g. registers, locations on the stack, global variables) Root nodes Reference counting (Collins, 1960) Does not move blocks (not discussed) Copying collection (Minsky, 1963) Moves blocks (not discussed) Heap nodes reachable Not-reachable (garbage) For more information, see Jones and Lin, “Garbage Jones Collection: Algorithms for Automatic Dynamic Memory”, John Wiley & Sons, 1996. Memory” – 15 – A node (block) is reachable if there is a path from any root to that node. Non-reachable nodes are garbage (never needed by the application) Nongarbage (never – 16 – Assumptions For This Lecture Application new(n): returns pointer to new block with all locations cleared read(b,i): read location i of block b into register write(b,i,v): write v into location i of block b Mark and Sweep Collecting Can build on top of malloc/free package Allocate using malloc until you “run out of space” When out of space: Use extra mark bit in the head of each block Mark: Start at roots and set mark bit on all reachable memory Sweep: Scan all blocks and free blocks that are not marked root Before mark Mark bit set Each block will have a header word addressed as b[-1], for a block b Used for different purposes in different collectors Instructions used by the Garbage Collector is_ptr(p): determines whether p is a pointer length(b): returns the length of block b, not including the header get_roots(): returns all the roots After mark After sweep – 17 – – 18 – free free Page Mark and Sweep (cont.) Mark using depth-first traversal of the memory graph ptr mark(ptr p) { if (!is_ptr(p)) return; if (markBitSet(p)) return setMarkBit(p); for (i=0; i < length(p); i++) mark(p[i]); return; } // // // // do nothing if not pointer check if already marked set the mark bit mark all children Conservative Mark and Sweep in C A conservative collector for C programs Is_ptr() determines if a word is a pointer by checking if it points to an allocated block of memory. But, in C pointers can point to the middle of a block. ptr header Sweep using lengths to find next block ptr sweep(ptr p, ptr end) { while (p < end) { if markBitSet(p) clearMarkBit(); else if (allocateBitSet(p)) free(p); p += length(p); } – 19 – So how do we find the beginning of the block? Can use balanced tree to keep track of all allocated blocks where the key is the location Balanced tree pointers can be stored in header (use two additional words) head data size – 20 – left right Memory-Related Bugs Dereferencing bad pointers Reading uninitialized memory Overwriting memory Referencing nonexistent variables Freeing blocks multiple times Referencing freed blocks Failing to free blocks Dereferencing Bad Pointers The classic scanf bug scanf scanf(“%d”, val); – 21 – – 22 – Reading Uninitialized Memory Assuming that heap data is initialized to zero Overwriting Memory Allocating the (possibly) wrong sized object /* return y = Ax */ int *matvec(int **A, int *x) { int *y = malloc(N*sizeof(int)); int i, j; for (i=0; i<N; i++) for (j=0; j<N; j++) y[i] += A[i][j]*x[j]; return y; } int **p; p = malloc(N*sizeof(int)); for (i=0; i<N; i++) { p[i] = malloc(M*sizeof(int)); } – 23 – – 24 – Page Overwriting Memory Off-by-one error Off- by- Overwriting Memory Not checking the max string size int **p; p = malloc(N*sizeof(int *)); char s[8]; int i; gets(s); /* reads “123456789” from stdin */ for (i=0; i<=N; i++) { p[i] = malloc(M*sizeof(int)); } Basis for classic buffer overflow attacks 1988 Internet worm Modern attacks on Web servers AOL/Microsoft IM war – 25 – – 26 – Overwriting Memory Referencing a pointer instead of the object it points to int *BinheapDelete(int **binheap, int *size) { int *packet; packet = binheap[0]; binheap[0] = binheap[*size - 1]; *size--; Heapify(binheap, *size, 0); return(packet); } Overwriting Memory Misunderstanding pointer arithmetic int *search(int *p, int val) { while (*p && *p != val) p += sizeof(int); return p; } – 27 – – 28 – Referencing Nonexistent Variables Forgetting that local variables disappear when a function returns int *foo () { int val; return &val; } Freeing Blocks Multiple Times Nasty! x = malloc(N*sizeof(int)); <manipulate x> free(x); y = malloc(M*sizeof(int)); <manipulate y> free(x); – 29 – – 30 – Page Referencing Freed Blocks Evil! x = malloc(N*sizeof(int)); <manipulate x> free(x); ... y = malloc(M*sizeof(int)); for (i=0; i<M; i++) y[i] = x[i]++; Failing to Free Blocks (Memory Leaks) Slow, long-term killer! long- foo() { int *x = malloc(N*sizeof(int)); ... return; } – 31 – – 32 – Failing to Free Blocks (Memory Leaks) Freeing only part of a data structure Dealing With Memory Bugs Conventional debugger (gdb) Good for finding bad pointer dereferences Hard to detect the other memory bugs struct list { int val; struct list *next; }; foo() { struct list *head = malloc(sizeof(struct list)); head->val = 0; head->next = NULL; <create and manipulate the rest of the list> ... free(head); return; } – 33 – Debugging malloc (CSRI UToronto malloc) malloc malloc Wrapper around conventional malloc Detects memory bugs at malloc and free boundaries Memory overwrites that corrupt heap structures Some instances of freeing blocks multiple times Memory leaks Cannot detect all memory bugs Overwrites into the middle of allocated blocks Freeing block twice that has been reallocated in the interim Referencing freed blocks – 34 – Dealing With Memory Bugs (cont.) Binary translator (Atom, Purify) Powerful debugging and analysis technique Rewrites text section of executable object file Can detect all errors as debugging malloc Can also check each individual reference at runtime Bad pointers Overwriting Referencing outside of allocated block Garbage collection (Boehm-Weiser Conservative GC) (BoehmLet the system free blocks instead of the programmer. – 35 – Page ...
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