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Lecture-planning-1

Lecture-planning-1 - Planning Chapter 11 Yet another...

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Planning Chapter 11 Yet another popular formulation for AI Logic-based language One of the most structured formulations Can be translate into less structured formulations such as state-space, CSP, SAT, etc.

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What is Planning Generate sequences of actions to perform tasks and achieve objectives. States, actions and goals Objective: John wants to go to NYC Plan: taxi(John,home,STL) board(John,plane) fly(plane,STL,JFK) exit(John,plane) taxi(John,JFK,5 th Ave) Classical planning environment: fully observable, deterministic, finite, and discrete.
Difficulty of real world problems What’s wrong with state-space search, e.g. A*? Which actions are relevant? Too many irrelevant actions Board(Mary,plane), board(Tim,plane), taxi(John, home, six flags), fly(plane, LAX, SFO), …. What is a good heuristic functions? It is difficult to come up with domain-independent heuristics if only a state-space description is given How to decompose the problem? Most real-world problems are nearly decomposable. E.g. John, Mary, and Tim want to go to different cities

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Planning language What is a good language? Expressive enough to describe a wide variety of problems. Restrictive enough to allow efficient algorithms to operate on it. Planning algorithm should be able to take advantage of the logical structure of the problem. STRIPS
Example: air cargo transport Init(At(C1, SFO) At(C2,JFK) At(P1,SFO) At(P2,JFK) Cargo(C1) Cargo(C2) Plane(P1) Plane(P2) Airport(JFK) Airport(SFO)) Goal(At(C1,JFK) At(C2,SFO)) Action(Load(c,p,a) PRECOND: At(c,a) At(p,a) Cargo(c) Plane(p) Airport(a) EFFECT: ¬At(c,a) In(c,p)) Action(Unload(c,p,a) PRECOND: In(c,p) At(p,a) Cargo(c) Plane(p) Airport(a) EFFECT: At(c,a) ¬In(c,p)) Action(Fly(p,from,to) PRECOND: At(p,from) Plane(p) Airport(from) Airport(to) EFFECT: ¬ At(p,from) At(p,to)) [Load(C1,P1,SFO), Fly(P1,SFO,JFK),Unload(C1,P1,JFK), Load(C2,P2,JFK), Fly(P2,JFK,SFO), Unload(C2,P2,SFO)]

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Example: air cargo transport Init(At(C1, SFO) At(C2,JFK) At(P1,SFO) At(P2,JFK) Cargo(C1) Cargo(C2) Plane(P1) Plane(P2) Airport(JFK) Airport(SFO)) Goal(At(C1,JFK) At(C2,SFO) At(P1,SFO) ) Action(Load(c,p,a) PRECOND: At(c,a) At(p,a) Cargo(c) Plane(p) Airport(a) EFFECT: ¬At(c,a) In(c,p)) Action(Unload(c,p,a) PRECOND: In(c,p) At(p,a) Cargo(c) Plane(p) Airport(a) EFFECT: At(c,a) ¬In(c,p)) Action(Fly(p,from,to) PRECOND: At(p,from) Plane(p) Airport(from) Airport(to) EFFECT: ¬ At(p,from) At(p,to)) [Load(C1,P1,SFO), Fly(P1,SFO,JFK),Unload(C1,P1,JFK), Load(C2,P2,JFK), Fly(P2,JFK,SFO), Unload(C2,P2,SFO), Fly(P1,JFK,SFO) ]
Example: air cargo transport Init(At(C1, SFO) At(C2,JFK) At(P1,SFO) At(P2,JFK) Cargo(C1) Cargo(C2) Plane(P1) Plane(P2) Airport(JFK) Airport(SFO)) Goal(At(C1,JFK) At(C2,SFO) At(P1,SFO) ) Action(Load(c,p,a) PRECOND: At(c,a) At(p,a) Cargo(c) Plane(p) Airport(a) EFFECT: ¬At(c,a) In(c,p)) Action(Unload(c,p,a) PRECOND: In(c,p) At(p,a) Cargo(c) Plane(p)

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