Review Questions for Second Exam
: serial endosymbiosis, endoplasmic reticulum, symbiont, paramylon,
contractile and food vacuoles, plastids, phytoplankton, sporozoites, micro vs.
macronucleus, conjugation, pseudopodia, phagocytosis
1. Give a protist example of a photo-autotroph, a mixo-troph, and a chemo-
Chlorophytes are photoautotrophs, Euglenids are mixotrophs,
and any parasitic protist would be a chemoheterotroph.
2. Describe the steps of endosymbiosis and why they were important for eukaryote
Formation of nuclear membrane and engulfing of heterotroph and
in that order
3. What is the evidence for the hypothesis that bacterial symbionts gave rise to
mitochondria and plastids in eukaryotes?
Organelles are the same size, have
circular DNA, binary fission and similar inner membranes
4. Give a disease caused by, or a benefit of each major clade of protists, as well as
a homology shown by each group
5. Know the cellular organelles found in both euglenids and ciliates.
with these figures in text
6. Name two protist clades you would find microscopically in a sample of sea water.
Dinoflagellates and diatoms
7. What are the two hosts in
life cycle? In which host does fertilization
and the formation of a diploid zygote occur?
The zygote is in mosquitos, and
the other host is humans
8. How are sex and reproduction uncoupled in conjugation?
micronuclei is “sex” and reproduction by mitosis comes later in the life
What protist group is considered most closely related to plants?
10. Why do the protists with pseudopodia illustrate that Kingdom Protista is
They have a homology (pseudopodia) but share few homologies
with other protists
11. What protist group has characteristics in common with both amoebae and fungi?
The slime molds
: exoenzyme, saprobe, hyphae, coenocytic, haustoria, mycelium, fruiting
body, chitin, plasmogamy vs. karyogamy, cellulases, molds, yeasts and lichens,
endophytes, mycorrhizae, leaf cutter ants and fungi, rusts, smuts and blights
12. How do fungi get their nutrition? What ecological roles do they fill?
either saprobes or parasites with exoenzymes and are also symbiotic
13. What phylum has coenocytic hyphae? What are haustoria?