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Biol_1202_2009_ex._2_review_questions_answered - 1Biology...

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1Biology 1202 Review Questions for Second Exam Chapter 28 : serial endosymbiosis, endoplasmic reticulum, symbiont, paramylon, contractile and food vacuoles, plastids, phytoplankton, sporozoites, micro vs. macronucleus, conjugation, pseudopodia, phagocytosis 1. Give a protist example of a photo-autotroph, a mixo-troph, and a chemo- heterotroph. Chlorophytes are photoautotrophs, Euglenids are mixotrophs, and any parasitic protist would be a chemoheterotroph. 2. Describe the steps of endosymbiosis and why they were important for eukaryote evolution. Formation of nuclear membrane and engulfing of heterotroph and autotroph, in that order 3. What is the evidence for the hypothesis that bacterial symbionts gave rise to mitochondria and plastids in eukaryotes? Organelles are the same size, have circular DNA, binary fission and similar inner membranes 4. Give a disease caused by, or a benefit of each major clade of protists, as well as a homology shown by each group 5. Know the cellular organelles found in both euglenids and ciliates. Be familiar with these figures in text 6. Name two protist clades you would find microscopically in a sample of sea water. Dinoflagellates and diatoms 7. What are the two hosts in Plasmodium’s life cycle? In which host does fertilization and the formation of a diploid zygote occur? The zygote is in mosquitos, and the other host is humans 8. How are sex and reproduction uncoupled in conjugation? Exchange of micronuclei is “sex” and reproduction by mitosis comes later in the life cycle 9. What protist group is considered most closely related to plants? Cyanophycea 10. Why do the protists with pseudopodia illustrate that Kingdom Protista is polyphyletic? They have a homology (pseudopodia) but share few homologies with other protists 11. What protist group has characteristics in common with both amoebae and fungi? The slime molds Chapter 31 : exoenzyme, saprobe, hyphae, coenocytic, haustoria, mycelium, fruiting body, chitin, plasmogamy vs. karyogamy, cellulases, molds, yeasts and lichens, endophytes, mycorrhizae, leaf cutter ants and fungi, rusts, smuts and blights 12. How do fungi get their nutrition? What ecological roles do they fill? They are either saprobes or parasites with exoenzymes and are also symbiotic 13. What phylum has coenocytic hyphae? What are haustoria?
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