PCB 3044 Chapter 12 - o Cooperative hunting and learned...

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Chapter 12: Predation and Herbivory Case study: Snowshoe Hares Exploitation: a relationship in which one organism benefits by feeding on, and thus directly harming, another. Three modes of eating: Herbivore, Predator, and Parasite. Concept 12.1: Most predators have broad diets, whereas a majority of herbivores have relatively narrow diets. Active predation: Hunting, actively seeking food. Sit-and-wait: Remain inconspicuous until prey comes close enough. Some herbivores (i.e. grasshoppers) feed on a wide range of species. Large browsers, such as deer, often switch from one tree or shrub species to another. Concept 12.2: Organisms have evolved a wide range of adaptations that help them capture food and avoid being eaten. Predators have evolved a rich variety of defense mechanisms. o Crypsis: camouflage o Mimicry: mimic dangerous animals
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Unformatted text preview: o Cooperative hunting and learned behavior. o Compensation: growth responses that allow plants to compensate for, and thus tolerate, herbivory. Removal of plant tissue stimulates new growth. o Some plants produce secondary compounds all the time. This reduces herbivory (can be toxins). o Induced defenses are stimulated by herbivore attack. This includes secondary compounds and structural mechanisms. Concept 12.3: Predation and herviory affect ecological communities greatly, in some cases causing a shift one community type to another Predators and herbivores can change the outcome of competition, thereby affecting distribution or abundance of competitor species. If the presence of a predator is or herbivore, decreases performance of the top competitor, the inferior competitor may increase in abundance....
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