NotesTest3 - 10/19 Chapter 14 Mutualism and Commensalism...

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Unformatted text preview: 10/19 Chapter 14 Mutualism and Commensalism • Positive interactions • Characteristics of Mutualism • Ecological consequences Case Study: the first framers The fungus-growing ants started cultivating fungi for food at least 50 million years before the first human farmers. Figure 14.1 Pg. 302 Figure 14.2 both a & b Pg. 303 Introduction Positive interactions- between species are those in which one or both species benefit and neither is harmed. Concept 14.1 Pg.303 Mutualism- mutually beneficial interaction between individuals of two species (+/+). Commensalism- individuals of one species benefit, while individuals of the other species do not benefit and are not harmed (+/0). Symbiosis- a relationship in which the two species live in close physiological contact with each other, such as corals and algae. Symbioses can include parasitism (+/-), commensalism (+/0), and mutualism (+/+) Most plants from mycorrhizae, symbiotic associations between plant roots and various types of fungi. Figure 14.3 Pg.304 Figure 14.4 parts 1&2 Pg.305 Figure 14.5 Pg. 305 Mutualism can arise from a host- parasite interaction. This was observed in a strain of amoeba proteus that was infected by bacterium. Initially, the bacteria caused the hosts to be smaller, grow slowly, and often kill the hosts. Some positive interactions are highly species-specific, and obligate (not optional for either species) Figure 14.6 Pg.306 Mutualisms and commensalisms are facultative (not obligatory) Desert ironwood nurse plants= for 165 species, other plants germinate in shade Figure 14.7 Pg.307 Interactions between two species can be categorized by the outcome for each species Positive (benefits>costs) Negative (costs>benefits) Neutral (benefits=costs) Figure 14.8 part 1&2 Pg.308 Figure 14.9 Pg.308 Relative Neighbor Effect RNE biomass= (biomass of clipped-biomass of control) / Biomass of clipped Figure 14.10 Part 1&2 Pg.309 Figure 14.11 Pg.309 Characteristic of mutualism Trophic Mutualism- mutualism receives energy or nutrients from its partner. Figure 14.12 Pg.310 Habitat mutualism- one partner provides the other with shelter, a place to live, or favorable habitat. Service mutualism- interactions in which one partner performs an ecological service for the other. Figure 14.13 Pg.311 Cheaters- are individuals that increase offspring production by over exploiting their mutualistic partner. Figure 14.14 Pg.312 Figure 14.15 Pg.312 10/21 Chapter 14: Characteristics of Mutualism: • The partners in a mutualism are not altruistic • Both partners take actions that promote their own best interest • In general, as mutualism evolves and is maintained because the net effect is advantageous to both partners Concept 14.1 Positive interactions affect… Shifts in interactions an shift in ecological niche Fig. 14.16 –mutualistic interactions Ants are defending plants from herbivores and defending from smothering plants Fig. 14.17-higher survival rate with interactions with ants (due to reduction of Fig....
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This note was uploaded on 11/13/2009 for the course PCB PCB 3044 taught by Professor Woo during the Fall '09 term at University of Central Florida.

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NotesTest3 - 10/19 Chapter 14 Mutualism and Commensalism...

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