01-Mitosis - Mitosis and Meiosis cells and nuclei the cell...

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Mitosis and Meiosis cells and nuclei the cell cycle chromosomes control of the cell cycle mitosis meiosis gametogenesis yeast life cycle nondisjunction
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The eukaryotic cell at interphase Chromosomes are contained inside the nucleus.
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The eukaryotic cell division cycle G1 ( gap 1 ): cell growth S-phase ( synthesis ): DNA replication G2 ( gap 2 ): cell growth Mitosis : cell division Interphase : G1 + S + G2 cell may exit the division cycle at G1 and go into G0 to become a non-dividing cell at the end of mitosis and during G1: each chromosome consists of a single DNA molecule after S-phase and during G2: each chromosome consist of two DNA molecules (two sister chromatids )
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The eukaryotic cell division cycle
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Sister chromatids after DNA replication Centromere : the region of the chromosome in which sister chromatids are joined ( also present before DNA replication ) Telomeres : stable ends of linear chromosomes
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DNA in the eukaryotic nucleus Chromatin : fibers of decondensed DNA occurs during nondivisional phases of the cell cycle Chromosome : before DNA replication : a single molecule of DNA following DNA replication in preparation for cell division : chromosomes consist of two sister chromatids , which contain identical DNA sequences
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DNA in the eukaryotic nucleus Prior to cell division, the chromatin condenses into visible chromosome due to the tightening of interactions between DNA and chromatin proteins (histones ).
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Classification of chromosomes based on centromere location
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p arm (“petite”): short arm of the chromosome q arm : long arm, always shown bellow the centromere Classification of chromosomes based on centromere location metacentric : middle submetacentric : between middle and end acrocentric : close to end telocentric : at end
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A diploid cell has two copies of each chromosome
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Homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell Alleles : alternative forms of a gene found at the same position of homologous chromosomes
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