62engetym - Etymologies of English Function words a, an:...

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Etymologies of English Function words a, an: unstressed forms of ‘one’ < PIE *oino- . Cf. Latin ū nus . The reduction to ‘a’ before consonants began by 12thC. about: < OE on-b ū tan ‘on the outside (of)’ thus ‘around’. Cf. ‘on’. b ū tan < be ū tan ‘by out(side)’. Cf. ‘by’ and ‘out’. after: orig. an adjective meaning ‘further away’ < *ap-tero- . Cf. ‘of’ and ‘off’. all: pan-Germanic, but origin beyond that totally obscure. already: = ‘all ready’, hence ‘anticipating’, thus ‘ahead of time’, thus ‘before now’. also: see under ‘as’ for source. Sense has shifted from ‘wholly so’ to just ‘too’. along: < OE andlong ‘extending opposite’ < and (see below) + long < PIE *dhlongho- . and: probably from old preposition *‘facing, opposite’; cf. Greek anti- , Latin ante . But not undisputed, since shift to use as conjunction not entirely clear. another: < ‘an+other’. ‘other’ < PIE *antero- . Cf. German ander and Skt. antara- . any: < OE Anig (cf. German einig ) < ā n ‘one’ + adj. suffix seen in ‘mood-y’ and ‘stony’. are: originally only dialectal OE; < PIE root *h 1 er- ‘arise’ seen also in ‘(thou) art’. Cf. ‘be’ and ‘is’. as: unstressed form of ‘also’ < all sw ā ‘all so’ used relatively. No clear source beyond Germanic for ‘all’; ‘so’ contains old PIE pronominal stem seen also in ‘such’. at: < PIE *ad ‘at, to’. Cf. Latin ad ‘at, to’ as in ‘adjunct’ etc. be, been: < PIE *bhuh- ‘be(come), grow’. Cf. Greek phusis ‘growth’ whence ‘physical’ etc. and Latin f ū turus ‘what is to be’. Cf. ‘are’ and ‘is’. ± both: ME bothe < Old Norse ð ar , extended form of Gmc. *b ō . Cf. Latin amb ō ‘both’ and ambi-dexterous . but: < OE b(e)- ū tan , orig. ‘outside’, i.e. ‘by out’. See ‘by’ and ‘out’. by: related to Greek amphi and Latin ambi- ‘around, on both sides of’. can: orig. ‘to know (how to)’ < PIE * ĝ neh 3 - ‘to know’. Cf. Latin (g)n ō sc ō ‘know’ in English borrowings like ‘reco-gnize’, ‘co-gnition’, etc. could: past tense of ‘can’ < PIE root
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This note was uploaded on 11/13/2009 for the course LING 253385201 taught by Professor Melchert during the Spring '09 term at UCLA.

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62engetym - Etymologies of English Function words a, an:...

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