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Unformatted text preview: Lee 1 Lee, Anna JAPN M123/Ling M176B May 6, 2009 TAME NI vs YOO NI Japanese, as in every language, has many different grammar rules. The focus of this paper is a comparison of the grammatical forms TAME NI and YOO NI . The two grammatical forms have structural similarities but differ in meaning. One grammar point focuses on one’s ability to control an event or action. The other grammar point focuses on one’s inability to control a state or event. Each grammar point in the sentences below has restrictions that cause the speaker to use one grammar point over the other. However, there are a few cases where either grammar point can occur. Both grammar point appear in complementary distribution, where if one appears, the other cannot. Structurally, the two expressions appear as, [X Y]. X and Y represents two difference clauses, X represents the action, state, or an event clause, while clause Y is the subject of the sentence. X is also always in plain form, always ending with an ‘u’ or negative plain form, always ending in ‘nai’, because TAME NI and YOO NI always follows a plain/negative plain form clause. The part Y of the sentence construction differs in the two sentences. The Y in the TAME NI construction indicates that the ‘action of X can controlled by the subject Y’ (McGloin) such as eating, saving money for something, or going out on an excursion. In the YOO NI construction, ‘action of X is beyond the control of clause Y’ (McGloin) such as weather. Page 1 of 7 Lee 2 (1)   € % Uchi o kau tame ni okane o tameteimasu. ‘I am saving money in order to buy a house.’ (2) €      Mereteirunaranai yoo ni uchi he hayaku kaeru . ‘I return home early so that I don’t get wet.’ (In context of  potentially bad weather) In sentence (1) the speaker has control over what he/she is doing which is saving money. The speaker has a purpose or goal in mind. In sentence (2), the speaker possibly saw or heard the news forecast, or maybe read the newspaper’s weather report...
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- Spring '09
- YOO NI, TAME NI