Review 3 with answers - 1) Glucose is the only source of...

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1) Glucose is the only source of fuel for which two cell types? A: The brain and red blood cells 2) What is the starting product of gluconeogenesis? What is the end product? A: The starting product is pyruvate. The end product is glucose – 6 phosphate. Free glucose usually not generated as it passes in an out of the cell. The phosphate group keeps it in the cell and can start it on the pathway to form glycogen. Only the liver and the kidneys can create free glucose to be released into the bloodstream. This final step takes place in the ER instead of the cytoplasm 3) What are the three irreversible reactions of glycolysis and what are the four reactions to bypass them? (hint there’s only 3 bypass routes, but four reactions) A: The three irreversible reactions are those performed by hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, and pyruvate kinase. The first bypass includes converting pyruvate to oxaloactetate by carboxylation. This performed by pyruvate carboxylation and requires 1 ATP. From there the oxaloactetate is converted into phosphoenolpyruvate by the enzyme phosphoenolypyruvate carboxyknase. The phosphorylation stabilizes the enol form. The second bypass includes the hydrolysis of fructose 1,6 bisphosphate to fructose 6-phosphate and is performed by fructose 1, 6 bisphosphatase The third bypass involves the hydrolysis of glucose 6-phosphate to glucose by the enzyme glucose 6 phosphatase. 4) What is the total cost in ATP, GTP and NADH of gluconeogenesis?
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Review 3 with answers - 1) Glucose is the only source of...

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