Chemistry 2080

Spring 2009
List of Concepts for Prelim #2
Ch 15: Principles of Chemical Equilibrium
Different types of equilibria:
(a)
Liquid vaporizing in a closed container
(b)
Solute in a solution
(c)
Distribution of a solute between two immiscible liquids (e.g. Iodine in water/CCl
4
)
(d)
Chemical reaction, e.g. PCl
5
∏
PCl
3
+
Cl
2
Do not include pure liquids or solids in equilibrium constant expressions.
Other examples of (d):
NO
2
/N
2
O
4
;
CO + H
2
reacting to give methanol
Rules for manipulating equations and the associated equilibrium constants (reverse equation/ take
reciprocal; multiply equation by a constant/ raise K to that power;
when you add two chemical equations, you
must multiply the two values of K).
How to derive an unknown K from several known equilibria.
Activities make equilibrium constants dimensionless.
The relationship between Kc and Kp and how to
interconvert them.
Calculation of equilibrium concentrations using the ICE method (initial, change and equilibrium).
Solution of a quadratic equation.
Le Châtelier’s Principle. Its application to NO
2
/N
2
O
4
, and the iron(III) thiocyanate equilibrium.
The Reaction Quotient and its use in determining whether a mixture is at equilibrium or not.
The use of approximations for simplifying the math: application in the 2H
2
+ S
2
=
2H
2
S system. The
5% rule.
Chapter 16: Acids and Bases
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 '07
 SMITH
 Equilibrium, pH, Weak acid, Lewis Bases

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