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Unformatted text preview: Chem 2080 - Final Exam Equation Sheet
H = U +PV ΔU = q + w ΔU = qv ΔU = ΔH - Δ(PV) =ΔH - PextΔV = ΔH - Δ(nRT)= ΔH - RTΔn ΔH = qp PV = nRT (ideal gas law) ln xy = ylnx ln x = ln x ! ln y y R = 8.31451 J mol-1K-1 R = 0.082057 l atm mol-1K-1 Gravity acceleration: g = 9.80665 ms-2 Grav. Pot. Energy: E = mgh Energy Conversion: 1 cal = 4.184 J Kinetic Energy: E = ½ mv2 Heat Transferred: q = (mass)(c)(ΔT) = CΔT Work: w = -Pext ΔV Gas Constant: Avogadro’s Number: NA = 6.022 x 1023mol-1 Arrhenius Equation: ann constant: kB = 1.3807 x 10-23JK-1 Kelvin - Celsius: Pressure: k = Ae! Ea / RT E ln k = ln A ! a RT
T(K) = T(oC) + 273.15 1 atm = 760Torr = 760mm Hg Physical Properties of Water :
Molar Mass 18.015 g/mol Specific Heat: H2O (l) → H2O (g) H2O (s) → H2O (l) H2O (l): s = 4.18 J/goC H2O (s): s = 2.01 J/goC ΔHvap = 44.0 kJ/mol ΔHfus = 6.01 kJ/mol For the reaction A → products
Zero Order Reaction: Rate = ! d[A] = k[A]0 = k dt d[A] = k[A]1 = k[A] dt d[A] = k[A]2 dt Integrated Rate Law: [A]t = [A]0 ! kt First Order Reaction: Rate = ! Integrated Rate Law: ln[A]t = ln[A]0 ! kt Second Order Reaction: Rate = ! Integrated Rate Law: 1 1 = + kt [A]t [A]0 Acids, Bases, and Equilibrium
pH = pK a + log10
pH = -log10[H3O+] pOH = -log10[OH-] pH + pOH = 14.00 at 25oC pKa = -log10Ka Pressure: Equilibrium Const: Quadratic Formula: 1 atm = 760 mmHg = 760 Torr = 101.3 kPa = 1.013 bar [A ! ] [HA] K p = K c (RT )
2 !n gas For ax + bx + c = 0, ! b ± b 2 ! 4ac x= 2a Spontaneity and Electrochemistry:
q rev Entropy Change for Reversible Process: !S = T
Gibbs Free Energy: ΔG = ΔH -TΔS ΔG = ΔGo + RT lnQ "G o = !RT ln K "G = !nFE cell
K 2 (H o & 1 1# $' ! = K1 R $ T1 T2 ! % " 1 Ampere = 1 Coulomb/second ln
1 Volt = 1 Joule/Coulomb E oell = c 0.025693V ln K eq n (at 25°C) o Nernst Equation: E cell = E cell ! 0.0592V log Q n (at 25°C) 1 Faraday = 96,485C/mole = charge on 1 mole of electrons ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/14/2009 for the course CHEM 207 at Cornell University (Engineering School).