3-Structure of Molecules - Structure of Molecules Shultz,...

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Unformatted text preview: Structure of Molecules Shultz, Chapter 6 Fine, Chapter 6 and Chapter 7, section 7.2 Suggested problems: Shultz Chapter 6 #1, 3, 7, 11, 13, 17, 27, 29, Fine Chapter 6 Problems # 5, 15, 21, 23, 27 Chapter 7 Questions # 1, 3 Problem Set 1 due Sept 30 last day! Tutorial Sessions October 1st, October 19th, November 2nd, November 16th. All sessions from 6:30-8 PM All sessions will be in Kaiser 2020/2030. Electronegativity and Bond Polarity In polar bonds, electrons are attracted to the atom with a greater electronegativity. Electronegativity (EN) is the ability of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons to itself. A widely used scale is the Pauling electronegativity scale . Increasing Electronegativity Increasing Electronegativity Electronegativity The bigger the electronegativity difference ( EN), the more polar the bond. A charge density potential plot of OH Two views of the water molecule Lewis Dot Structures The simplest theory to account for covalent bonding in molecules was formulated by G.N. Lewis in 1902 The basis for this is in most stable compounds, the atoms in them achieve noble gas configurations These configurations are achieved by arranging the valence electrons so each atom has 8 electrons around it (an OCTET) The electrons are arranged in pairs, and can be shared (bond pairs) or unshared (lone pairs) F + F F F LONE PAIR BOND PAIR Lone pair = pair of valence electrons not involved in bonding. Bond pair = pair of electrons in a covalent bond. In F 2 , each atom has a filled valence shell or octet . F + F F F Methane, CH 4 C 4 e- 4 x H +4 e- =8 e- C H H H H 4 bonds - 8 e- 0 e- Carbon Dioxide, CO 2 C 4 e- 2 x O +12 e- 16 e- C O O : : 6 lone pairs - 12 e- 0 e- 2 bonds - 4 e- 12 e- no octet C O O Lewis structures of Polyatomics Count up all the valence electrons. Add or subtract electrons if it is a charged species. Write atomic symbols for the central and terminal atoms. Hydrogen atoms are always terminal Central atoms are generally those with the lowest electronegativity Carbon atoms are always central Put in single bonds between the atoms in the structure....
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This note was uploaded on 11/14/2009 for the course CHEMISTRY CHEM 154 taught by Professor Dapkus during the Spring '09 term at The University of British Columbia.

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3-Structure of Molecules - Structure of Molecules Shultz,...

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