5.Gases - Gases Fine, Chapter 4 Available on reserve at...

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1 Gases Fine, Chapter 4 Available on reserve at Irving K Barber Learning Centre Suggested Problems Chapter 4 #s 21, 29, 31, 43, 49, 53, 55, 57, 67, 77
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2 Gases compared with solids and liquids: A molecular view
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3 1. Gas volumes change greatly with changes in pressure. 2. Gas volumes change greatly with changes in temperature. 3. Gases have low viscosity. 4. Gases have low density. 5. Gases are miscible. (They mix in all proportions). How gases differ from liquids and solids
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4 Pressure SI: (Pa) = 1 N m -2 1 bar = 100,000 Pa 1 atm = 760 mmHg = 760 Torr = 101,325 Pa = 14.7 lb in -2 Pressure = Force Area
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5 Pressure Measurements P gas = d fluid hg “absolute pressure” P a = x psi P gas = P atm + d fluid hg “gauge pressure” P g = x psi
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6 Variables The STATE of a gas is defined by the values of Pressure (P) Volume (V) Temperature (T) Moles (n) P, V and T are directly measurable n can be determined by weighing the gas
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7 Boyle's Law P 1/V or PV = constant ( for constant n and T) Common zero intercept for plots of P vs. 1/V over a range of temperatures
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8
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9 “The invention of the balloon appears . . . to be a discovery of great importance.” Benjamin Franklin (ca. 1748)
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10 Charles's Law V T at constant n and P T = absolute temperature in Kelvin (K) Establishes absolute zero for the Kelvin temperature scale 0 K = -273.15 ºC
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11 Avogadro's Law “Equal volumes of gas under the same conditions of pressure and temperature contain the same number of molecules.” V n (at constant T and P)
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12
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13 Combined Gas Law If you combine all three of the laws you get: Ideal Gas Law PV = nRT R = gas constant = 8.3145 J mol -1 K -1 = 0.08206 L atm mol -1 K -1 S tandard T emperature and P ressure (STP): P = 1 atm T = 273 K (~ 0 ºC) V n T P
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14 Density and the Ideal Gas Law RT PMM RT PMM RT V m PMM RT MM m PV gas gas rather or Molar Mass and the Ideal Gas Law RT MM m PV MM m n and nRT PV
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15 An unknown gas has a mass composition of
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5.Gases - Gases Fine, Chapter 4 Available on reserve at...

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