1. Some influences that might influence expectancy levels are the outcomes and the routes to finish the task. Some influences of instrumentality linkages and valences are the outcomes and the way that you get to the end results. 2. I would give incentives to help encourage expectancy, instrumentality, and valence. Instrumentality is the perceived link between task performance and rewards. Valence is the value on task performances and rewards. 3. If someone wasn’t getting something out of the result in the end then they will perform poorly or be disruptive. Give the employees something to work for so they don’t perform poorly or be disruptive. 4. Every time I acted highly motivated is when I got something out of it in the end. Whether it was money or a trophy saying that I was number one. For example, I worked really hard being a lifeguard so that I was recognized as the number one lifeguard and the money that came with it. 5. No I feel that a firm can change whether or not a employee is motivated
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