Chem 103A - Atomic structure (short )

Chem 103A - Atomic structure (short ) - Chapter 7 Light and...

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Chapter 7 Light and orbitals (whole chapter) Emphasis on quantum, orbitals, some basic light You draw orbital shapes in 2D Chapter 8 Why the periodic table (whole chapter) Write the configuration of any atom, emphasis on first 36 Know first row transition metal exceptions Know filling order 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 Trends in size Trends in ionization E Trends in electron affinity Trends in metallic character Chapter 9 ( partial) P337-341 basic covalent bond Chapter 10 (partial) P358-368 drawing Lewis Structures very important
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Atomic Structure Light and its properties and problems The H atom – fixed energy levels Quantum Mechanics and atoms Orbitals s,p,d,f,g,h, and beyond Filling orbitals to make the periodic table Properties based on orbital configurations
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WHAT IS LIGHT?
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WHAT IS LIGHT? A B C
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Light is a wave
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Fig. 7.1 l o n g Long λ Low ν short λ Hi ν E hi or low? E hi or low? Wavelength λ Frequency ν E=h ν
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Fig. 7.2
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Relationships For all waves v (velocity) = νλ or frequency x wavelength dimensional analysis = ALL forms of light = electromagnetic radiation ALL ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION TRAVELS AT THE SAME VELOCITY V= λν = c (speed of light) 3 x 10 8 m/sec 3 x 10 10 cm/sec 186,000 miles/sec or is it
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Sun Glasses Polarized Light GLARE
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γ-rays X-rays UV VISIBLE Infrared microwave Radio/TV Long waves ROY G BIV Birds at Brookfield Zoo Energy INCREASES BIV G YOR
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What Kind of Bird are You? BROOKFIELD ZOO
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Page 259 ROY G BIV
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What does light do? γ-ray –destroys tissue X-ray – penetrates tissue – knocks out e’s UV- moves e’s; breaks bonds Visible- moves e’s inside of atoms (jumps) IR causes molecules to vibrate- no e jump Microwave- spins molecules; rotates bonds Radio/TV – passes through tissue will flip the nucleus of H MRI Long waves – communications through the earth Taos,NM HUMMMM HARP
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Fig. 7.3
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ALL ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION MOVES AT THE SPEED OF LIGHT ALL ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION MOVES AT THE SPEED OF LIGHT ALL ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION MOVES AT THE SPEED OF LIGHT
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p.295b Heated Elements give only one color Sodium Strontium Copper
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1) Black Body 2) Line Spectra Most heated objects (horse shoes, etc.) Give all the colors of the spectrum but in Different amounts – we see the most intense.
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Atomic emissions Individual atoms of elements (gases) when heated Give only a few distinctive colors. WHY?
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Line spectra Each element in the gas phase has a distinctive set of lines – this was the way new elements were often found at very low levels Photographic film strips
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