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Phil 264 - Kuhn-2

Phil 264 - Kuhn-2 - Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific...

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Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962) Study Questions 8-16 (from chapter 10) Overview of Chapter 10: In this chapter, Kuhn is basically elaborating on his controversial claim that "after a revolution scientists are responding to a different world." 8. How does Kuhn support the claim that "after a revolution scientists are responding to a different world"? His argument is basically this: p1: Paradigm shifts cause scientists to see the world of their research differently. p2: The scientists' only recourse (access) to that world is "through what they see and do." c: After a revolution, "scientists are responding to a different world." 9. What was the point of Kuhn's use of the inverted lenses example? First, what is the inverted lenses example? It's this: An experimental subject who puts on goggles fitted with inverting lenses initially sees the entire world upside down. At the start, his perceptual apparatus functions as it had been trained to function in the absence of the goggles and the result is extreme disorientation...But after the subject has begun to learn to deal with his new world, his entire visual field flips over...Thereafter, objects are again seen as they had been before the goggles were put on. The point is to provide a metaphor for how scientists adjust to paradigm shifts. Initially, there is a sense of confusion but eventually scientists adjust to the shift, and everything seems perfectly normal - just as "normal" as before the paradigm shift. 10. How did Herschel discover Uranus? How does Kuhn use this example? This is what did NOT happen. Herschel looked into the sky one night (with a telescope), spotted Uranus, and declared: There's a planet! What actually happened was this. On many occasions between 1690 and 1781, various astronomers had seen a "star" in positions we now know were occupied by Uranus. One observer had noticed the celestial body on four
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