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Unformatted text preview: Review Guide CONCEPTS: Broad categories of human knowledge (e.g., animals, planets, precious gems) EXEMPLARS: Instances that satisfy the definition of a particular concept (e.g., "dog," "Mars," "diamond") Chapter 8 “METACOGNITION”- Metacognition o refers to peoples “cognition about cognitive phenomena” this concept was first introduced by John Flavel The idea is that some cognitive states and processes are about other cognitive states and processes- 3 concepts of metamemory are: knowledge, monitoring, control- Monitoring o Involves assessing the current state or ongoing progress of any aspect of learning and retrieval Typically measured by having individuals make subjective judgments about memory while they are learning or retrieving information o Monitoring process and control process may occur at any stage of learning, during encoding, retention or retrieval- Control o involves the regulation of ongoing learning and retrieval processes. Ex. Deciding you are finished studying Measured by allowing individuals to regulate their learning and seeing how long they work on hard vs easy material- During encoding, monitoring is often measured by judgments of learning (JOL) and control is measured by initiation and termination of search- JOL o Is a rating of the likelihood of correctly recalling a given item on the criterion test (1-100%) o Students JOL has some validity at predicting recall, but measure of accuracy did not provide an estimate of the level of accuracy Estimating the level of accuracy is possible by correlating an individuals judgments with performance on the criterion test, gives relative a curacy or resolution. o Accuracy is much lower for immediate JOL .38, very high for delayed JOL at .90- Feeling of Knowledge (FOK) o Is limited to items that were not correctly recalled, participants rate the likelihood they will later correctly identify the right response Ex. Tip of the tongue- RJR Method o Hart’s theory of Recall, Judgment, Recognition Hart found that accuracy of FOK judgments was above chance at predicting performance on recognition tests- Confidence Judgment o Ratings on confidence when answering questions Absolute Accuracy or Calibration – pertains to the degree to which the magnitude of the judgments accurately reflects the level of performance Hard-Easy Effect - Difficult items produce vast overconfidence, and easier items produce under confidence Developing reasons for one’s answers can improve calibration When people make confidence judgments they don’t consider evidence that contradicts the potential validity of their answer (they should, increases calibration)-...
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