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Chapter 14-psych

Chapter 14-psych - Chapter 14-Cognitive Disorders Brain...

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Chapter 14-Cognitive Disorders Brain Impairment in Adults Prior to the DSM-IV, disorders involving some kind of identifiable pathology (e.g., a brain tumor, stroke, drug intoxication) were labeled organic mental disorders Functional mental disorders were considered not to have an organic basis Functional vs organic distinction no longer viable Brain Impairment in Adults This material deals with what were formerly labeled organic mental disorders It is incorrect to assume other disorders (such as schizophrenia) have no organic basis Current view recognizes neuroanatomy and neurochemistry in all psychological disorders Brain Impairment in Adults The DSM-IV-TR presents the diagnostic coding of various neuropsychological disorders in different and somewhat inconsistent ways Both psychological and biological problems are coded on Axis I Disease is coded on Axis III Brain Impairment in Adults Included because: Are psychopathological conditions Cause symptoms that look like other abnormal psychological disorders Cause changes in behavior, mood and personality They may be preceded or followed by depression They take a toll on others causing depression Brain Impairment in Adults Three types of cognitive disorders that result from damage Delirium Dementia Amnesic syndrome Type of disorder depends on nature and site of damage Brain Impairment in Adults The brain weighs 3 pounds Most complex organ in body Capable of studying itself Involved in every aspect of life Vulnerable to damage – external/internal Protected by skull and thick outer membrane Brain Impairment and Adults Damage or destruction of brain tissue may involve only limited behavioral deficits or a wide range of psychological impairments depending on The nature, location, and extent of neural damage The premorbid competence and personality of the individual The individual’s life situation The amount of time since the first appearance of the condition When damage occurs to brain, damage is permanent since cell bodies and neural pathways cannot regenerate – thus, permanent loss of function (stem cells may change that) Screening for Cognitive Impairment During the Mini-Mental State Examination, the clinician will ask the patient questions concerning (points given for correct response)
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Orientation (e.g., Where are we now?) Registration (Repeat these three words.) Attention and concentration (Count backwards by seven.) Recall (Do you remember those three words?) Language (Name what I’m pointing to.) Comprehension (Pick up the paper in front of you.) Construction ability (Copy this design.) Diffuse Versus Focal Damage Attention is often impaired by moderate diffuse damage (such as damage from moderate oxygen deprivation) (e.g. general memory loss) Focal damage (such as damage from an injury or stroke) can cause different problems depending on what part of the brain is affected (location and extent) Brain Structures and Associated Behaviors Left hemisphere: serial processing; language and math
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Chapter 14-psych - Chapter 14-Cognitive Disorders Brain...

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